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forging laps

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... (fracturing) Forgings Laps Pressure vessels Seams Alloy steel Metalworking-related failures Certain forged pressure vessels are subjected to autofrettage during their manufacture to induce residual compressive stresses at locations where fatigue cracks may initiate. The results of the autofrettage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for testing. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x nital-etched micrograph, fluorescent magnetic-particle testing, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the rod failed in fatigue with the origin along the lap and located approximately 4.7 mm below the forged surface. The presence of oxides...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Micrograph of a forging lap. Note the included oxide material in the lap. 20× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 10 Micrograph of a forging lap. Note the included oxide material in the lap. Original magnification: 20× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 49 Micrograph of AISI 1045 as-forged steel illustrating a forging lap. 27×; 2% nital etch. Source: Ref 27 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Microstructure of forging lap in another ski lift grip component. As-polished. 111x More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Microstructure of forging lap in another ski lift grip component. As-polished. 111× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledge-hammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. 65× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 27 Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 28 Microstructure of forging lap in another ski lift grip component. As-polished. Original magnification: 111 × More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledgehammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. Original magnification: 65× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing. Bombs (weapons) Suspension lugs Forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The investigation results suggest that the root cause of failure was a forging lap that occurred during manufacturing. Precracks induced by the forging defect and the influence of preload stress (due to bolt torque) caused the premature failure. cable clamps brittle fracture forging overlap copper alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the failures stemmed from forging laps in the jaw that broaching failed to remove. open end wrench fracture forging laps chromium steel fracture scanning electron microscopy surface morphology chromium manganese steel (low alloy chromium steel, general) Introduction A maintenance worker...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 15B41 steel forged truck connecting rod that failed in service from fatigue initiated at a forging lap. (a) Connecting rod and a detail of the I-beam portion showing the forging lop in one wall. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Lap formation in a rib-web forging caused by improper radius in the preform die More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 Effects of diemismatch during forging, which can produce a fold or lap during trimming. The force of the punch moving down causes the material to flow to the empty portion of the die; at the same time, material flows into the area from the trim line. More