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forging laps

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Cracking (fracturing) Forgings Laps Pressure vessels Seams Alloy steel Metalworking-related failures Certain forged pressure vessels are subjected to autofrettage during their manufacture to induce residual compressive stresses at locations where fatigue cracks may initiate. The results of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... concluded that the failures stemmed from forging laps in the jaw that broaching failed to remove. open end wrench fracture forging laps chromium steel fracture scanning electron microscopy surface morphology chromium manganese steel (low alloy chromium steel, general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for testing. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x nital-etched micrograph, fluorescent magnetic-particle testing, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the rod failed in fatigue with the origin along the lap and located approximately 4.7 mm below the forged surface. The presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing. Bombs (weapons) Suspension lugs Forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... investigation results suggest that the root cause of failure was a forging lap that occurred during manufacturing. Precracks induced by the forging defect and the influence of preload stress (due to bolt torque) caused the premature failure. cable clamps brittle fracture forging overlap copper alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment. Examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... blunt-ended. The two cases not only serve to illustrate the danger of applying fillet welds to seal the lap edges of riveted seams, but point to the inadvisability of employing riveted construction for vessels intended for service under conditions involving frequent pressure and thermal fluctuations, as...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... fractured surfaces showed that failure had been preceded by fatigue cracking. The material from which the dish plate was forged was a Ni-Cr-Mo steel in the oil hardened and tempered condition. Fractographic examination of the surface of the cracks showed striation markings indicative of the progress of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fissures which originated at a zone containing defects introduced at the time of manufacture. These may have had their origin in the ingot from which the plate was rolled or, alternatively, be indicative of a zone which suffered overheating and local burning at the time the forge weld was made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lap that intersects the surface at a large angle). A seam can also result from a defect in the ingot surface, such as a hole, that becomes oxidized and is prevented from healing during working. In this case, the hole simply stretches out during forging or rolling, producing a linear cracklike seam in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... significantly different from the cracking observed in the initial area of the failure. Several sections of the alloy were subjected to severe forging at 400 °C (750 °F). The laps and cracks so produced were sectioned and compared with those of the initial cracking in the failed arm. These artificially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... brittle areas in the bolts. Corrosion attack in the form of dezincification was found at the innermost extremities of forging laps near the bolt heads and in the threaded sections. A micrograph of a section through one of the bolt threads that had been dezincified is shown in Fig. 1(j) . Initial attack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that have been identified as causal factor(s) in failures include: Metal product form Types of discontinuities Forgings Laps Bursts Flakes Segregation Cavity shrinkage Centerline pipe Parting line grain flow Inclusions Castings Porosity, gas, and microshrinkage Cavity shrinkage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Cracking, tears, or necking due to forming/deep drawing Laps due to thread rolling/spinning Tool marks and scratches from forming Surface tears due to poor surface preparation prior to working Residual-stress cracking due to flowforming Lüders lines due to forming strain rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to situations where either there was an indication of a defect when in fact there was none or there was an indication of an imperfection which could be tolerated and was inherent to the manufacturing process (e.g., a lap or a flash line in the case of forgings, porosity in the case of cast wheels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... In another case, a forging lap led to cracking at the striking face the first time a sledgehammer was used ( Ref 7 ). The metallography of chips and splinters has been discussed by Hultgren ( Ref 8 ) and by Naumann and Spies ( Ref 9 ). At first, only the maul and chip were provided for analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include ( Ref 4 ): Order stock large enough to allow for machining to remove decarburized surfaces and surface imperfections, such as laps and seams. Do not drill screw holes closer than 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) from edges of die blocks or large parts, where possible. Cracking may be avoided by using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-side heads and was practically absent in the heads themselves. From this it might be inferred that the gassing of the rivets had occurred from the fireside heads inwards, i.e. it had taken place in service. While it seemed highly unlike that this had happened, because then the fireside laps of the...