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focused ion beam

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sensitivities, with detection limits for most elements in the parts-per-thousand to parts-per-million range. By using a finely focused ion beam (typically Ga or In) it is also possible to record the lateral distribution of chemical species across a surface with micron to submicron spatial resolution. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... topography is adequate for EDS. Instead of selecting a region of interest for a static x-ray dot map, the new systems allow for dynamic exploration of a sample because the software color-codes each element on the basis of characteristic x-rays. Dual-beam electron/ion beam systems, or focused ion beam systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... By applying a potential between the sample surface and the mass analyzer, the desorbed secondary ions are extracted into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, where their masses are separated by flight time, with very high accuracy, based on their mass-to-charge ratio ( m / z ). The focused primary ion beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., then are focused and controlled by a series of electromagnetic lenses and coils. The resultant beam is collimated and defined by various apertures placed in the beam path. Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope The thermionic electron gun consists...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... screen may produce excellent images when a photograph is taken, due to the higher resolution. After passing through the condenser lens assembly, the electron beam enters the objective lens. The objective lens is responsible for focusing the beam on the surface of the sample, and the control dial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., an electron beam is focused on the area of interest on the sample being examined. Weak Auger electrons resulting from a secondary reaction of x-rays with the orbital electrons are detected. The electrons have energies that are characteristic of the elements that emit them. The great advantage of AES over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Nondestructive testing (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of injurious ions. The geometry of many of these surface features can act to locally concentrate the stress and thereby encourage the initiation of SCC. Crack Propagation As noted earlier, the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach to the study of SCC is focused on the growth of stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of magnitude greater than is obtained using an energy-dispersive spectrometer. In AES, an electron beam is focused on the area of interest on the sample being examined. Weak Auger electrons resulting from a secondary reaction of x-rays with the orbital electrons are detected. The electrons have energies...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) 5.8 and 6.8 0.3–1.0 N/A N/A N/A <100 for 0.75 μm TiN at 5.84 GPa (c) 56 (1994) Magnetron sputtering TiN/NbN M50 Three-ball on rod (lubricated) 3.4 5.2 0.5 0.075–0.1 5200 kgf/mm 2 561–63 HRC 191 (d) 15 (d) ( L 10 in hours) 57 (1998) Ion beam DLHC M50 AISI 52100 AISI...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) or can form oxides. The diagrams do not provide any information regarding corrosion rates, however. Pourbaix diagrams also provide information regarding the formation of barrier films; however, conclusions regarding their effectiveness in the presence of specific ions cannot be drawn. General information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in mind the three-legged stool approach of device design/manufacturing, patient factors, and surgical technique, this article aims to inform the failure analyst of the metallurgical and materials engineering aspects of a medical device failure investigation. It focuses on the device "failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (immune) or can form oxides. The diagrams do not provide information regarding corrosion rates. Pourbaix diagrams also provide information regarding the formation of barrier films; however, conclusions regarding their effectiveness in the presence of specific ions cannot be drawn. General information can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ion beam from an accelerator. After wear has taken place, debris is removed and the residual radioactivity is measured. A sensitivity of at least 0.2 μm (8 μin.) is claimed ( Ref 94 ). A less-sophisticated method for the case of crossed cylinders is the determination of wear from the decrease...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (%) salinity and 25 °C (75 °F) Table 6 Major seawater constituents at 35 parts per thousand (%) salinity and 25 °C (75 °F) Ion or molecule Concentration mmol/kg g/kg Na + 468.5 10.77 K + 10.21 0.399 Mg +2 53.08 1.290 Ca +2 10.28 0.4121 Cl − 545.9 19.354...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., operation, or fabrication. Nickel alloys have improved resistance to environmental cracking over steels and stainless steels, although nickel alloys are not immune to SCC. Stress-corrosion cracking of certain nickel alloys has occurred in high-temperature halogen ion environments, high-temperature waters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of a nearly continuous ferrite band in which microporosity was observed. 2% nital etch Fig. 55 Fracture surface of an electron beam weld in the web of an AISI 9310 steel gear. The weld fractured because of incomplete fusion. The incomplete fusion zone where fracture originated is shown at region...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the path length of the radiation. Thus, lighter areas on the plate correspond to the denser areas of the sample, whereas darker areas indicate a crack or defect running in the direction of the incident beam. The main advantages of radiography are its ability to detect internal discontinuities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Society for Testing and Materials , 1978 , p 235 – 248 10.1520/STP38094S 14. Shieh W.T. , The Relation of Microstructure and Fracture Properties of Electron Beam Melted, Modified SAE 4620 Steels , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , May 1974 , p 1069 – 1085 10.1007/BF02644319 15...