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focused ion beam

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The technique has extremely good detection sensitivities, with detection limits for most elements in the parts-per-thousand to parts-per-million range. By using a finely focused ion beam (typically Ga or In) it is also possible to record the lateral distribution of chemical species across a surface with micron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-induced dissociation; SED, secondary electron detector; GCIB, gas cluster ion beam; FIB, focused ion beam; LMIG, liquid metal ion gun. Courtesy of Physical Electronics Inc., Chanhassen, MN Fig. 4 Nonconductive material imaged using (a) conventional scanning electron microscopy, (b) low-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to this is when a gas cluster ion beam is used to profile an organic material. In this instance, the chemical nature of the organic can often still be maintained. Because the applications for dynamic SIMS are typically different than those for static SIMS, the following discussion primarily focuses on the static...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In this type of microscope, the pressure in the sample chamber is raised to a value on the order of 10 to 250 Pa (0.1 to 2 torr). Interaction of the electron beam with gas molecules in the region where the beam strikes the sample effectively creates a positively charged “cloud” of ions above the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the electron gun and focused and controlled by a series of electromagnetic lenses and coils. The resultant beam is collimated and defined by various apertures placed in the beam path. Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope The electron gun consists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is adequate for EDS. Instead of selecting a region of interest for a static x-ray dot map, the new systems allow for dynamic exploration of a sample because the software color-codes each element on the basis of characteristic x-rays. Dual-beam electron/ion beam systems, or focused ion beam systems, have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Nondestructive testing (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The article begins...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., an electron beam is focused on the area of interest on the sample being examined. Weak Auger electrons resulting from a secondary reaction of x-rays with the orbital electrons are detected. The electrons have energies that are characteristic of the elements that emit them. The great advantage of AES over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of injurious ions. The geometry of many of these surface features can act to locally concentrate the stress and thereby encourage the initiation of SCC. Crack Propagation As noted earlier, the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach to the study of SCC is focused on the growth of stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...%, an order of magnitude greater than is obtained using an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Auger Electron Spectroscopy In AES, an electron beam is focused on the area of interest on the sample being examined. Weak Auger electrons resulting from a secondary reaction of x-rays with the orbital electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The reaction is: (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 Since the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in the simplified form: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... antimicrobial compounds Type Details Application ZnO in polybutylene succinate films Composite films were prepared by blown-film extrusion at five ZnO levels, ranging from 2 to 10 wt%. Minimum loading of 6 wt% was needed to achieve antimicrobial effect. Zinc ions were released over 15 days...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reaction occurs in which hydrogen gas is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ): (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → Zn Cl 2 + H 2 Because the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in a simplified form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for 0.75 μm TiN at 5.84 GPa (c) 56 (1994) Magnetron sputtering TiN/NbN M50 Three-ball on rod (lubricated) 3.4 5.2 0.5 0.075–0.1 5200 kgf/mm 2 561–63 HRC 191 (d) 15 (d) ( L 10 in hours) 57 (1998) Ion beam DLHC M50 AISI 52100 AISI 4118 AISI 440C Three-ball on rod (lubricated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... This article focuses on design-related failures in products utilizing polymeric materials, and reviews important considerations of the design envelope of plastic parts. The article provides a non-exhaustive list and descriptions of design tools that can support the design process and the prevention of design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency of vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Bearing in mind the three-legged stool approach of device design/manufacturing, patient factors, and surgical technique, this article aims to inform the failure analyst of the metallurgical and materials engineering aspects of a medical device failure investigation. It focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions where the rate-determining step is the diffusion of ions, either inward toward or outward from the substrate, with a chemical potential gradient as the driving force. High-temperature corrosion resistance of most chromia (Cr 2 O 3 ) and alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) scale-forming alloys follows parabolic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article describes some of the welding discontinuities and flaws characterized by nondestructive examinations. It focuses on nondestructive inspection methods used in the welding industry. The sources of weld discontinuities and defects as they relate to service failures...