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fluid viscosity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties of polymer. This is followed by a section describing molecular weight determination using viscosity measurements. Next, the article discusses the use of cone and plate and parallel plate geometries in melt rheology. It then reviews the processes involved in the analysis of thermoplastic resins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the flow and deformation of matter. We will begin with an examination of flow behavior ( Fig. 1 ). In many rheology textbooks, flow is illustrated using a dashpot ( Fig. 1a ), which shows a fluid in a cylinder and a piston that is being pulled through the fluid. The key point in this example...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... usually operate with Λ near 1 and even less. The consequence of operating with Λ < 1, as in the case of overload or where the viscosity of the lubricant is low because of overheating, is that the surface topographical features (bumps) begin to interact through a very thin local fluid film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the bearing. In a hydrodynamic bearing carrying a steady load, the grooves should be located in the half of the bearing behind the location of the minimum fluid-film thickness. As shown in Fig. 3 , the grooves may be circumferential, axial, or spiral in orientation. If they are supplied with lubricant from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cause of failure was cavitation and vortexing between the rotor and the lining. The root cause of the failure was the conversion from lime to limestone slurry without appropriate modification of the pump. Conversion to the limestone slurry resulted in fluid dynamics outside the operational limits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to as the viscosity of the fluid material; it may be used as a measure of the resistance of a material to flow. The study of the mechanics of materials and their responses to external forces can typically be treated in one of three manners: solid mechanics response, fluid flow response, or a combination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., humidity, salt fog, mold, and so on [ 1 – 3 ]. The cured epoxy resin is usually very stable during service. However, an epoxy resin encapsulant on an electromagnetic valve coil has become soft, even turning into fluid after 14 years of storage. The failed encapsulant, including the softened and fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., considered fluid viscosity, vapor pressure, surface tension, and specific gravity for water, gasoline, and the sodium-potassium eutectic ( Ref 66 ). The temperature dependence of erosion rates was attributed to the effects of velocity and surface tension at low temperatures and to the increase in vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... In addition, the viscoelastic properties of fluids, semisolids, and solids can be measured. With an appropriate oven or heated plates, a rheometer can be used to follow the viscosity during curing from liquid to solid, which is very useful for characterizing the curing of thermosets. Viscometer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and by low-viscosity liquid. Silicates, particularly silicate glasses, are usually viscous; simple oxidic compounds and basic slags are less viscous. Halides and elemental molten metals are, in general, the most fluid liquids. Penetration is the result of an interplay between capillary forces (surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... applications. Organic liquids such as cleaning fluids, detergents, gasoline, lubricants, and sealants may seriously reduce the mechanical properties of plastics. It is therefore important for engineers performing failure analyses on products made from polymeric materials to consider the effects of exposure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., vapor pressure to 30,000, interactions polymer/solvent M ¯¯¯¯n … M ¯¯¯¯n=300 Dilute solution viscosity Inherent viscosity, reduced viscosity, intrinsic viscosity Viscosity determination, viscosity average molecular weight Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) Macromolecular particle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... corresponding to soft-and-weak, soft-and-tough, hard-and-brittle, and hard-and-tough plastics and temperature-modulus plots representative of polymers with different degrees of crystallinity, cross-linking, and polarity. It explains how viscosity varies with shear rate in polymer melts and how processes align...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... it is desirable to examine the nuts and other associated parts that may have contributed to the failures. Also, in failures involving corrosion, stress-corrosion, or corrosion fatigue, a sample of the fluid that has been in contact with the metal, or of any deposits that have formed, will often be required...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of debris Potential sources of electrical current passing through the bearing Potential sources of water and other corrosive fluids Load spectrum and sources of potential-unknown loads Misalignment of deflections that influence load distribution within the bearing system Not all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ). Guide values for estimating the viscosity ratio, κ Table 12 Guide values for estimating the viscosity ratio, κ Value of κ (unitless) Lubrication regime type Further influences to note ≥4 Full fluid No gain to increase; internal losses ≥2 Fluid No gain to increase; internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... viscosity and solution viscosity techniques, of producing results that directly represent the actual molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the plastic resin. Another advantage is that GPC requires a relatively small sample size, 30 to 120 μg, for a complete evaluation ( Ref 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and the two sliding surfaces are no longer touching, the hydrodynamic lubrication regime is reached. In this region, the friction in the sliding system is mostly dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, and the two surfaces are fully supported by the pressure of the fluid film during sliding ( Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but accepted as a consequence of materials selection. Third, at the fluid interface with the inside-diameter surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers that have been...