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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by erosion ( Ref 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ). In the petrochemical industry, process control valves ( Ref 37 ) and power recovery turbines ( Ref 18 , 38 ) are damaged by erosion. In chemical process industries, solids transport systems are damaged by erosion ( Ref 25 , 39 , 40 , 41 ). In the aircraft industry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... effects of erosion have caused problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., thereby producing a low resistance to movement. However, the energy required to pump the fluid must be considered in the overall economy of the bearing system. Another factor to consider is that hydrostatic lubrication requires a pump, which may of course fail and ruin a bearing. The principles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... temperature indicated. The vaporizer is a common component in a continuous flow heat exchanger system. It was designed as a horizontal axis helical coil system enclosed in a sealed tank which was internally gas fired. Fluid entered the vaporizer through 32 coils of nominal 6-inch diameter schedule 80...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... concentration, and a highly worked microstructure. These factors, and the oscillation of the individual screens during the test run, produced stress concentrations that led to fatigue failure of the wires. Most Probable Cause Remedial Action The Stirling engine is a candidate system for space power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in municipal water systems to treat for MIC. Stirring a tank of fluid may be all that is required to avoid pitting corrosion. Following analysis of corrosion failures, corrective actions are recommended to prevent or delay recurrence of failures. The approaches to corrective and preventive actions include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... water systems to treat for MIC. Stirring a tank of fluid could be all that is required to avoid pitting corrosion. Following the analysis of corrosion failures, corrective actions are recommended to prevent or delay the recurrence of failures. Approaches to corrective and preventive actions include...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are subjected to high-pressure differentials across the intake and exit, high fluid velocities, and fluids that may cause erosion or corrosion. Flow-induced vibration is a significant loading mechanism. The reliability of pump impellers used in power and process facilities is important to prevent costly plant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fields such as rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... A as the heat transfer fluid. Design conditions are based on annular fluid flow to cool the coil wall. NDE, metallographic and fractographic examinations were performed. Numerous, circumferentially oriented, OD initiating cracks were found near the crown for two coils near the non-fired end of the vaporizer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the reduction of aggregates (MgO, Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , etc.) by carbon (indirect oxidation of carbon) and the role of the antioxidants, being more reducing than carbon in most systems. A powerful use of thermodynamics is to assess oxidation-reduction behavior of multicomponent systems using elaborate computer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A Stirling engine heat pipe failed after only 2h of operation in a test situation. Cracking at the leading edge of an evaporator fin allowed air to enter the system and react with the sodium coolant. The fin was fabricated from 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) thick Inconel 600 sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-element analyses are primarily used in the design and upgrade phases of systems. Before any owner of a power plant, refinery, paper mill, chemical plant, or power piping or pressurized process system accepts delivery, analyses showing code compliance will be provided. These include analyses of pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (loose particles between surfaces) Stress level High stress or low stress Surface alteration Scratching, polishing, or gouging Presence of fluid Dry abrasion or slurry abrasion (particles in fluid) Relative hardness of particles to surface Surface harder or softer than particles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... plays a key role in operation cycle of electric power generation, so any minor problem of a pump has a direct impact on the system. The common problems facing pumps are cavitation, erosion, and corrosion that individually or together can lead to the failure of pumps, in which cavitation is the most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that creates a weak grain boundary network. When the extent of attack is sufficient to create a path across the entire sealing surface, fluid may leak through even in the closed position. The poppet valve assembly is part of the fuel isolation valve. This valve isolates hydrazine from an auxiliary power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 17. Rood E.P. , Review Mechanisms of Cavitation Inception , J. Fluids Eng. (ASME) , Vol 113 ( No. 2 ), 1991 , p 163 – 165 10.1115/1.2909476 18. Ahmed M. , Investigation of the Temperature Effects on Induced Impact Pressure and Cavitation Erosion , Wear , Vol 218...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the selective increased attack on pearlite (carbon steel systems) can result in micropitting of the steel. Erosion corrosion generally occurs in areas of significant fluid turbulence near a metal surface and is associated with restrictions in a system (for example, bends, orifices, elbows, T-joints...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Worn wire screen in minerals processing plant showing effects of sliding wear in moist environment Fig. 4 Comparison of slurry wear for the flow-through and recycled slurry systems using a low-alloy steel in a 2% silica sand slurry. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 6 Relationship between...