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fluid flow

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... A as the heat transfer fluid. Design conditions are based on annular fluid flow to cool the coil wall. NDE, metallographic and fractographic examinations were performed. Numerous, circumferentially oriented, OD initiating cracks were found near the crown for two coils near the non-fired end of the vaporizer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the allowable operating temperature for the fluid. The probable cause for failure is thermal fatigue due to the localized overheating. Flow conditions inside the tubing should be reexamined to ensure suitable conditions for annular fluid flow. Cracking (fracturing) Heat exchangers Mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with the classic spongy appearance of cavitation. Two changes were proposed: streamlining the part to avoid abrupt changes in fluid flow; and a change in alloy to a more corrosion-resistant material (304 or preferably 316) to increase the tenacity of protective films. Cavitation Design Supports 8620...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract After two weeks of operation, a poppet used in a check valve to control fluid flow and with a maximum operating pressure of 24 MPa (3.5 ksi) failed during operation. Specifications required that the part be made of 1213 or 1215 rephosphorized and resulfurized steel. The poppet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... fluids or modifying the fluids in the tubing or purging by flowing dry nitrogen to dry it out. Coiled steel Drilling Pitting (corrosion) Tubes Structural steel tubing Corrosion fatigue Coiled tubing is used in drilling operations because it eliminates the need for a drilling rig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... case and open rotor (impeller). Both the case and the ductile iron rotor core were covered by natural rubber. Analyses conducted included surface examination of wear patterns, chemical analysis of materials, measurement of mechanical properties, and in-place flow tests. It was determined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A precipitation-hardened stainless steel poppet valve assembly used to shut off the flow of hydrazine fuel to an auxiliary power unit was found to leak. SEM and optical micrographs revealed that the final heat treatment designed for the AM-350 bellows material rendered the AM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0048350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of supporting the tubes was changed to reduce the amount of restraint and the strain concentration. Constraining Fluid flow Strain Supports Carbon-molybdenum steel Fatigue fracture Tubes in a marine boiler on a new ship failed after brief service lives. Circumferential brittle cracking occurred...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or condenser tubing, it is usually confined to a short distance on the inlet end of the tube where the fluid flow is turbulent. Impingement attack can be controlled by use of corrosion-resistant alloys, such as copper alloy C71500 (copper nickel, 30%). Impingement attack also has been somewhat relieved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., low-temperature steam piping, and condenser and other heat-exchanger tubes that are subjected to direct impingement by wet steam. Liquid impingement erosion in tubing and piping is most likely when fluid velocities exceed 2.1 m/s (7 ft/s). Damage occurs first at locations where direction of flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of fusion-zone solidification cracks. The occurrence of fusion-zone solidification cracks in the weld between the diffuser cone and the type 310 stainless steel intake diffuser flange suggested that local variations in welding conditions probably produced sluggish fluid flow and promoted the occurrence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will pass through the oil film and cause erosion. The bearing surfaces will not be reflective, but will appear frosted ( Fig. 5 ). In certain areas of fluid flow along a solid boundary, high pressures and low pressures can develop. If the negative pressure is high, cavities can form in the fluid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is immersed in fluid, these modes are 61.3 and 74 Hz. The fluid flowing across the impeller blade during operation produces eddies along the trailing edges and outer edges, creating fluctuating pressures on the blade. The flow-induced vibrations (FIV), from vortex shedding at the root (blade-to-hub attachment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are similarly additive. Other significant sources of cyclic stresses are fans or pumps, which generate high-frequency vibrations in coolant circuits; turbulent fluid flow through or over tubes, such as steam flow over condenser tubes; and such upsets as water hammer in steam-generating equipment (see...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers in service for some time have a fourth component to the heat-flow path: internal scale or deposits. Steam reacts with steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... between the layers of the hose, and/or restriction of the hydraulic fluid flow therefore locally altering the operating pressures. The problems with corrosion in hydraulic hoses are also influenced by design factors. In most types of couplings there is nothing to prevent water ingress under the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in the inner hose, creating leaks; allow water ingress to the wires; and alter the flow of hydraulic fluid and the pressure of the oil within the hose. Fig. 2 A cross section of one of the crushed areas of the failed hoist lift hose The hoist return hose was in much better condition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 27 , 28 ). Most cavitation erosion damage takes place on the suction surface of the impeller because of suction instabilities. With decreasing flow rate, the fluid approaches the impeller blades with larger and larger angles of incidence. This leads to great variations of pressure and velocity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... may result in damage to the inner hose, debonding between the layers of the hose, and/or restriction of the hydraulic fluid flow therefore locally altering the operating pressures. The problems with corrosion in hydraulic hoses are also influenced by design factors. In most types of couplings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and protective coatings designed to prevent wear or corrosion in an operating system, or the alteration of flow regimes and heat-transfer coefficients due to the biological fouling of metal surfaces. Given the potential impact of MIC on a wide range of industrial operations, it is not surprising...