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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the presence of the lap and the evidence of partial or poor bonding, it was concluded that a forging lap was present inside the jaw of the wrench at the corner formed by the jaw and flat of the wrench face. Fig. 5 SEM surface morphology Fig. 6 SEM morphology Fig. 7 Higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of some of the common flaws and damage mechanisms in pipelines Table 1 Summary of some of the common flaws and damage mechanisms in pipelines Materials and manufacturing flaws Damage mechanisms Material flaws Hard spots Laps Indentations Laminations Lap weld flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...: for example, internal bursts or chevron cracks, cracks on free surfaces, cracks on die-contacted surfaces Metal-flow-related problems: for example, inhomogeneous grain size; shear bands and locally weakened structures; cold shuts, folds, and laps; flow-through defects and improper grain flow Poor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., internal bursts or chevron cracks, cracks on free surfaces, cracks on die-contacted surfaces Metal-flow-related problems: for example, end grain and poor surface performance; inhomogeneous grain size; shear bands and locally weakened structures; cold shuts, folds, and laps; flow-through defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... stainless steel springs in oil ring lip seals failed. Applications Circumstances Leading to Failure Pertinent Specifications Performance of Other Parts in Same or Similar Service Specimen Selection Optical examination indicated flat (fatigue) fracture regions initiating on the inside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... MPa m (18 ksi in ) ( 1 ). The analysis also established that the critical crack size, assuming “worst case” design conditions (ground turn flat) would be about 3.2 mm (0.13 in) long by 1.6 mm (0.06 in) deep and located 90° from the bottom of the beam; however, it is less likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The cracked region was removed to expose the fracture faces. Failure progressed by a number of modes, as indicated by three distinct areas on the fracture surface ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Fracture surface of the failed support arm. Cracking initiated in the highly textured area (T). Flat area (F) is fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...) revealed a much smaller amount of deterioration than on the failed end. For example, the machined flats on the crests of the splines showed no damage, the follower sides of the splines had very shallow, almost imperceptible wear areas that were only about 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) wide, and the drive side of each...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in cold-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... about the flat bottom water tank Table 1 Information data about the flat bottom water tank Diameter 96,800 mm Height 20,000 mm Design code API 650 9th Edition 1993—Appendix E Capacity 140,000 m 3 Product Potable water Product specific gravity 1.00 Maximum operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... A crack followed the lower recessed contour of the large gear teeth and had an average depth of 1.6 mm ( 1 16 in.). Smaller cracks were also observed on the flat surfaces. (a) Actual size. (b) Etching the surface with 10% aqueous nitric acid revealed a white-etching appearance at the teeth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a bearing that has functioned under radial loads can be easily recognized. In radial ball bearings that have been properly mounted, operated under good load conditions, and kept clean and properly lubricated, the paths of the balls on the highly polished raceways appear as dulled surfaces (similar to lapped...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Additional design considerations to reduce the probability of distortion, cracking, and soft spots include ( Ref 4 ): Order stock large enough to allow for machining to remove decarburized surfaces and surface imperfections, such as laps and seams. Do not drill screw holes closer than 6.35 mm (0.25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... over simple visual inspection Most metals and composites with nonporous surfaces Magnetic particle Magnetic particles are attracted to breaks in magnetic lines of force. Near-surface flaws sensitive to magnetization; includes blow holes, laps, and cracks Not applicable to nonmagnetic metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... service. Effect of Metallurgical Discontinuities Nonmetallic inclusions, seams, laps, bursts, and pipes are common discontinuities found in wrought products that may cause premature failure. Shrinkage, gas porosity, and cold shuts are likely to occur in castings and can lead to failure, usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... carburization or decarburization can also lead to premature failures during machining or usage. Decarburization also occurs along laps, which are forging and rolling defects ( Ref 27 ). Grain-flow anisotropy due to preferred orientation working and burning, which is from grain-boundary melting due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The investigation results suggest that the root cause of failure was a forging lap that occurred during manufacturing. Precracks induced by the forging defect and the influence of preload stress (due to bolt torque) caused the premature failure. cable clamps brittle fracture forging overlap copper alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Mouginot R. and Maugis D. , Fracture Indentation beneath Flat and Spherical Punches , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 20 , 1985 , p 4354 – 4376 10.1007/BF00559324 13. Lawn B.R. , Partical Cone Crack Formation in a Brittle Material Loaded with a Sliding Spherical Indenter , Proc. R. Soc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from stress concentrations at the corners of the square-shaped windows ( Fig. 7 ). The subsequent accident investigation revealed that a failure at the lap joints between the skins of the upper and lower fuselage panels was caused by disbonding of the adhesive between the inner and outer skin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., at the microscale, there is evidence to indicate that the fracture mechanism may have occurred either due to slip and MVC (ductile fracture) or due to cleavage (brittle fracture) in the flat portion. This article focuses on characterizing the fracture surface appearance at the microscale and contains some...