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fireside corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ) became the stable phases for the substantial difference in the diffusion speed of the Fe 2+/3+ and Cr 3+ cations. Economiser boiler tubes are subject to both internal (steamside) and external (fireside) corrosion. Internal corrosion is caused by oxygen and unsuitable pH in feed water, whereas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Underdeposit corrosion—phosphate corrosion Acid cleaning corrosion Internal deposit/corrosion product buildup Fireside wastage Fireside oxidation Fireside corrosion of superheater and reheater tubing Fly-ash corrosion Soot-blower corrosion Coal-particle corrosion Steam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cleaning corrosion Internal deposit/corrosion product buildup Fireside wastage Fireside oxidation Fireside corrosion of superheater and reheater tubing Fly ash corrosion Sootblower corrosion Coal particle corrosion Steam impingement Fireside corrosion of waterwall tubing Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is higher than in subcritical units. Because of this, the furnace tubes act more as superheaters than as water-walls. This necessitates the use of a higher grade of materials, such as the high-alloy steels, in the furnace. In turn, materials having higher creep strength and greater oxidation and corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel superheater banks are often installed because of their superior fireside corrosion resistance, excellent high-temperature strength, and relatively good weldability with chromium/molybdenum low-alloy steel tubing in the system. This particular tertiary superheating bank operates at 10.5 MPa (1500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... surface contained relatively few inclusions, most of which were very small. A micrograph of a section through the fireside edge of the fracture surface is shown in Fig. 1(c) . Branched cracks similar to those produced by stress corrosion of steel were observed. These cracks had apparently propagated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to operate at 760 °C (1400 °F) for economically sustained time periods. Material-related failures in steam generators occur due to internal oxidation and corrosion, fireside corrosion, oxidation and erosion, inadequate welding procedures and fabrication techniques, and inadequate material properties (long...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... salts are often involved in sulfidation, chloridation, and hot corrosion, as discussed previously. The type of environment and the component metal temperatures are important factors in the promotion of fireside or external corrosion in tube steels in boilers. The corrosiveness of the environment depends...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the material being drawn out to a feather edge at the time of rupture. Other ruptures in the same and other tubes were of a more brittle type, this being associated with penetration of material by molten copper derived from scale. Boiler tubes Copper Scale (corrosion) Steel tube Mixed-mode fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Internal surface of a sample at the 12:00 position. Voids from hydrogen damage are evident beneath the internal corrosion (black arrows). Nital etch. (a) Copper deposits are visible on the internal surface (white arrows). (b) Microfissures near the internal gouging. 800×. Fig. 3 Typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as identified by OES 0.206 0.139 0.544 0.029 0.012 Composition of corrosion product Table 3 Composition of corrosion product S. No. Parameters, % Sample location Inner scale Outer scale sample opposite punch Outer scale sample near punch 1 Mn 0.3 0.2 0.3 2 Ni 0.3 0.3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Properties Hardness Scanning Electron Microscopy Fractography Corrosion Deposits Figure 6 gives the deposit analysis results from the fireside deposits. The external deposits contained major amounts of silicon, sulfur, iron, and potassium. EDS also detected minor to trace amounts of aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... with mixed acids, metallographic examination, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusions that the premature failure of the tube by perforation at the hearth level resulted from (1) corrosion caused by sulfur contamination from the refractory cement in contact with the tube and (2) severe local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of internal laminations constitutes an objectionable feature in the plates of vessels where heat transfer through the plates is required, particularly in the furnace rings of shell boilers. The laminations form an interruption to the heat path and instances are on record where overheating of the fireside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... where heat transfer through the plates is required, particularly in the furnace rings of shell boilers. The laminations form an interruption to the heat path and instances are on record where overheating of the fireside surface has resulted, leading to subsequent failure. On the other hand, however...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as applicable), the structure or component is designed without a specified life. At relatively low homologous temperatures, service life becomes a concern only if the material is subjected to damage mechanisms in service that reduce its ability to carry the load, such as: Corrosion Fatigue damage from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from corrosion, including coating degradation, is excessive. Grain-boundary attack and/or pitting by oxidation/hot corrosion is excessive. Foreign object damage is severe. Destructive sampling and testing indicate life exhaustion. Excessive deformation has occurred due to creep, causing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a description of heat-transfer surface area, discussing the design of the tubular heat exchanger. Next, the article discusses the processes involved in the examination of failed parts. Finally, it describes the most important types of corrosion, including uniform, galvanic, pitting, stress, and erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... explains the failure of pressure vessels with emphasis on stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, brittle and ductile fractures, creep and stress rupture, and fatigue with examples. brittle fracture composite creep rupture ductile fracture fabrication failure analysis fatigue...