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finish grinding

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... finished parts that had the transition zone coinciding with the relief step, several stop arms were induction hardened a second time. Erratic results obtained when samples were impact tested indicated that the parts were not usable. The induction-hardened stop arms failed by brittle fracture in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... generation which induced grinding cracks and grinding burn. Tensional stresses resulting from grinding developed in a thin surface layer. On another crankshaft, chromium plating introduced undesirable residual tensile stresses. Such plating is an unsatisfactory finish for crankshafts of aircraft engines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract The spindle of a helicopter-rotor blade fractured after 7383 h of flight service. At every overhaul (the spindle that failed was overhauled six times and reworked twice), any spindle that showed wear was reworked by grinding the shank to 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) under the finished diam. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... established that the incipient cracks found in liquid-penetrant inspection had originated at the surface in the banded region, in areas of ferrite where this constituent had been visibly deformed by grinding. Closer control on the microstructure, hardness of the forgings and smooth finish in critical area was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... face to a surface finish of 6 μm (250 μin.), thus permitting a more sensitive inspection. Primary consideration was given to performing a straight-beam ultrasonic inspection from the outside surface in the radial direction. During ring rolling, included foreign materials become aligned in the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... technique is not always to blame. For example, if a worker must finish a tool that has been tempered inadequately or one that has been embrittled by an excessive quenching ature, it is unfair to hold him responsible for cracks that develop in grinding. With material in either condition, the best grinding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., surface finish, etc. Vibration can cause serious difficulties just as excess temperature, corrosive gases and liquids, and overload forces create problems. An engineer confronted with fatigue failures should look for, and correct, the sources of vibration or alternating forces. Metallurgists looking for...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... An ample flow of coolant, with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figures 9(a) and (b) show the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diamond abrasives on napless surfaces usually follow planar grinding. Pressure-sensitive-adhesive-backed silk, nylon, or polyester cloths are widely used. These give good cutting rates, maintain flatness, and minimize relief. Silk cloths provide the best flatness and excellent surface finishes relative to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... die clearance for the given sheet thickness, wrinkles, the use of galling-susceptible tool steel, and rough finish on the surface of tools. Correct lubrication of the parts being drawn is essential to reduce friction, wear, and galling. In actual practice, die materials are selected after trials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Work rolls made of indefinite chill double-poured (ICDP) iron are commonly used in the finishing trains of hot-strip mills (HSMs). In actual service, spalling, apart from other surface degeneration modes, constitutes a major mechanism of premature roll failures. Although spalling can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., type of contact and vibration, impact fretting, surface finish, and residual stresses. The form, composition, and role of the debris are briefly discussed. The article also describes the measurement, mechanism, and prevention of fretting wear. It concludes with several examples of failures related to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... cross sectional transition. No bend fractures could be expected at this place because the incipient cracks were located at the compression side of the shaft. The finish of the fillet was good. Grinding checks could again be observed at the side of the cam lobe, i.e. in the characteristic crazing pattern...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surface is ground down to bare metal with a 60-grit flap wheel; then successively smaller grits (down to 600 grit) are used. The metal is finely polished with diamond paste down to a 0.25 µm (9.8 µin.) finish. When a scratch-free finish is attained, the material is etched electrolytically with 10% oxalic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Voort G.F. , Ed., ASM International , 1987 , p 55 – 67 Prior to the welding procedure, the titanium cylinders had been chemically milled, a procedure common to the surface preparation and machining of titanium alloys, which produced a superior surface finish. All of the grinding and polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the taper pin contained axial grinding marks, some of which were partly obliterated by movement of the components during operation, before and after the pin broke. Evidence of fretting was also found on the pin. Surface finish on the pin was 1 μm (45 μin.); specifications required 0.8 μm (32 μin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., probably by grinding, and that after plating it had been finished to size by grinding. As the surfaces of the grooves at the junctions with the fillets, illustrated in Fig. 1 , were in the “as-plated” condition, it was evident that they were not formed by the grinding operation, the most likely...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Impact Wear , Wear , Vol 185 , 1995 , p 17 – 22 10.1016/0043-1648(94)06586-1 35. Zheng Y.-K. and Yang Y.-Y. , Wear Characteristics of Large Grinding Balls in an SAG Mill , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 40 , 1997 , p 720 – 724 10.1080/10402009708983714 36. Xu L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to catastrophic rupture. A very rough surface finish clearly had a deleterious effect on material fatigue strength in terms of crack initiation. The factors that primarily affect such properties are the notch itself, tensile residual stresses, and modification of the surface...