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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Fig. 1 Abstract Abstract Overhaul mechanics discovered a crack in an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel pivot bolt when grinding off the chromium plating. The bolt had served for an estimated 10,000 h and was replated when last overhauled. On checking the bolt, several fine cracks were found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... originated from the middle flange. In all of the three rings one flank showed heavy wearing and scouring. The cracks started from the edge of this flank with the cylindrical mantle surface of the middle flange. The cracking resembled fatigue cracking. However, in a fine-grained hardened steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... an overview indicating that a large portion of the contact area exhibited only mechanical grinding and polishing structures. The fine corrosion pits in the periphery are shown at a higher magnification in Fig. 1(b) . The intense mechanical material transfer that can take place during fretting is visible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mechanics calculation indicated that this imperfection, although small, initiated fracture because of the local geometry and stress conditions and the low toughness of the steel. It was recommended that (1) the probability of flaws be reduced by welding over or grinding out arc strikes, (2) the local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are obtained. In general, the equipment needed to perform an on-site metallographic analysis must be able to perform the following functions: (1) rough and fine grinding, (2) coarse and final polishing, (3) etching, (4) microscopic examination; and, (5) documentation of observed microstructural characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-carbon steel specimen broken in tension, showing ductile dimples, local quasicleavage, and manganese sulfide inclusions Fig. 12 Replicas prepared from fracture surfaces and viewed in the TEM. (a) River patterns of a brittle failure of a steel fastener. (b) Fine, equiaxed ductile dimples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and its possible relation to failure; and the distribution of phases within the material. After metallographic specimens from the component of interest have been prepared by grinding and polishing, they should be examined in the unetched condition. This allows better observation of features...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to have suffered damage (sensitization) from a fire. Although no carbide precipitation was evident, pitting was discovered on the column OD in several areas above the insulation support rings. After grinding in these locations revealed fine circumferential cracking, field replicas were taken...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) in this layer was 52 HRC (a minimum of 55 HRC was specified). Thus, the failure was caused by brittle fracture in the hardness-transition zone as the result of excessive impact loading. The burned layer indicated that the cracks had been caused by improper grinding after hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Scorching, by removing metal too rapidly. Grinding with a dull or loaded wheel. Grinding with a wheel of grit-size too fine for the job. Ineffective use of coolant. Excessively high quenching temperatures, (the most frequent reason for thumbnail cracks in alloyed tool steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... procedure and the prepared specimen must provide the following: Deformation induced by sectioning, grinding, and polishing must be removed or be shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... must be removed or be shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable in examining failed parts. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, smear, and other preparation artifacts must be avoided...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the corrosion-wear synergism in aqueous slurry and grinding environments. It describes the effects of environmental factors on corrosive wear and provides information on the impact and three-body abrasive-corrosive wear. The article also discusses the various...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
....a0003544 The pulverizer, which is of the ball and race type ( Fig. 1 ), has one revolving and one stationary ring, between which are a set of grinding balls rolling in a horizontal plane. Force is applied through the stationary top ring (supported from the housing but free to move up and down...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ). The surfaces had a clean fine-grain structure, but the edges were peened—evidently the result of damage after fracture. The surfaces of the cheeks at the parting line contained rough grooves from hot trimming of the flash and from snag grinding ( Fig. 1c and d ). Forging 2 contained the most severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the bolster was in storage, necessitating cleaning in hydrochloric acid prior to examination. Two distinct regions were noted, one being darker than the other. A heavy coating of epoxy paint was stripped, and rough grinding near what appeared to be a fatigue failure was revealed. Figures 1 , 2 , 3 , 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... simultaneously: A material with a susceptibility of stress corrosion cracking Internal or external tensile stresses A corrosive medium for the particular material The cracks that are initially very fine run either through the grains (transcrystalline) or follow the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dust, metal fines, and oil residues from the samples was performed in an ultrasonic acetone bath for 10 min. Final cleaning was accomplished by immersion in alcohol and drying under hot-air stream. Macroscopic and macrofractographic observations were carried out using a stereomicroscope. Observations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at the root are indicative of a well quenched and tempered product. Could grinding of the teeth have caused this drop in surface hardness? It might have on the surface of the active profile, but not on the surface of the root radius that had not been ground. Also, grinding would not have influenced the entire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Metallography Evidence indicated that the nozzle joints failed by rotating bending fatigue. The following features pointed to fatigue failure: Severe grinding marks were also visible, and the cracks often followed these marks. Utmost care must be taken not to introduce grinding marks or other stress...