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final-polishing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract Component slippage in the left-side final drive train of a tracked military vehicle was detected after the vehicle had been driven 13,700 km (8500 miles) in combined highway and rough-terrain service. The slipping was traced to the mating surfaces of the final drive gear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... functions: (1) rough and fine grinding, (2) coarse and final polishing, (3) etching, (4) microscopic examination; and, (5) documentation of observed microstructural characteristics. The equipment and consumables chosen for the on-site nondestructive metallographic analysis of the titanium weldment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for rough polishing with diamond abrasive compounds. Napless, low-, medium-, and, occasionally, high-nap cloths are used for final polishing. This step should be brief to minimize relief. Mechanical polishing can be automated to a high degree using a wide variety of devices ranging from relatively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... softer cloths, such as canvas, billiard, and felt) maintains flatness. Rigid grinding discs (RGDs) yield surfaces with exceptional flatness. Final polishing with low-nap cloths for short times introduces very little rounding, compared to use of higher-nap, softer cloths. These procedures produce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of weight percentage. Following finally polishing using colloidal silica in a vibratory polisher, the faint microstructure suggests that the material has a columnar grain structure. Fig. 1 EDX analysis of the elements of the electroformed nickel (results of spectrums analyses are tabulated in Table...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...-section was prepared through the weld section shown in Figure 5 . This was accomplished by sectioning the sample with a water-cooled abrasive saw and vacuum mounting it in epoxy. The cured sample was ground through 600 grit abrasive paper, rough-polished with 6 micron diamond, then final polished using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Examination of nonetched samples was used to detect voids and microcracks. After mounting and rough polishing, the final polishing was carefully undertaken down to 1 µm diamond paste. No alumina polishing was used, because experience has shown that it tends to accentuate the size of the voids. The nature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... were sectioned, polished and etched for optical microscopy. Standard metallographic techniques were used in grinding and coarse polishing the failed pins. Final polishing was performed on a semi-automatic unit employing Kroll's etch and a rare earth polishing compound. Application of a duplex etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...; and (iv) final polishing with a proprietary aqueous colloidal suspension of 0.04 micron silica particles (OP-U from Struers, Inc. [1] ) on a medium nap chemical resistant cloth. The samples were etched using a 1% Nital solution (1 ml HNO 3 + 100 ml ethanol or methanol) for approximately 10 seconds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... cooled, cut-off machine. The cut sample was mounted in epoxy so as to reveal a transverse section of the plate. The sample was prepared by standard metallographic procedures with the final polish being carried out with 1 micrometre diamond paste. The etchant used was a mixture of: 10mL HNO 3 , 10mL...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... magnification. Of interest are scores, scuffing, dents, distortions, evidence of plastic deformation, cracks, and fractures. For example, documentation of damage and cracking surrounding a fracture, including damage patterns and crack origins, is an important step in assessing relevance to final failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... disc 20 Water 300 ∼180 ∼40 5–10 Fine grinding Composite disc 6 Lubricant 300 ∼100 ∼22 5–15 Polishing Fusible-backing nonwoven cloth 6 Lubricant 150 ∼150 ∼34 15–120 Hard synthetic cloth 3 Lubricant 150 ∼120 ∼27 15–120 Hard silk cloth 1 Lubricant 150 ∼90 ∼20 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... revealed the presence of a characteristic fatigue crack propagation pattern (beach marks) and radial chevron marks indicating the occurrence of final overload through a brittle intergranular fracture. The collected evidence suggests that surface-initiated cracks propagated by fatigue led to spalling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... is indicated in B whereas that of the other is masked, being in the root of C. The arrows marked on the photograph illustrate the mode of propagation. Final fracture occurred in the small area indicated by A. A Longitudinal section through the screw thread on the piston rod is seen in Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... verification, accessed overall workmanship, and measured the respective surface roughness of the rods in an effort to identify any discrepancies. Next, mechanical testing was performed, followed by optical and electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. Finally, ARL performed laboratory heat treatments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the tube and ranged from superficial to severe, with some pits extending through 75% of the tube's wall thickness. The SCC emanated from the pits and further reduced the service strength of the component until it could no longer sustain the operating pressure and final catastrophic fracture occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., pickled, and passivated at the final stage of manufacturing. Several broken heaters were sent for failure analysis. Fractographic examination required cutting the defective portions of heaters into lengths that could be accommodated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Longitudinal sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the final fracture zone consisting of voids and intergranular cracks. Fig. 6 SEM fractographs of the fracture surface of the 40 mm LCTR round wire. ( a ) Overall view, 20×. ( b ) Enlarged view of fatigue zone, 100×. ( c ) Fatigue striations and evidence of ductility in fatigue zone, 500×. ( d...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The shaft of an exciter that was used with a diesel-driven electric generator broke at a fillet after ten hours of service following resurfacing of the shaft by welding. The fracture surface contained a dull off-center region of final ductile fracture surrounded by regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... than the casting or heat treatment phases of manufacture. The “beach marks” suggested that this preexisting fracture had grown by fatigue and then, when sufficient growth had occurred, final failure occurred by brittle fracture. One possibility that was considered was that the casting had developed...