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film-vacuum interface

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). Fig. 3 Auger electron spectroscopy high-energy-resolution spectra of the (a) silicon KLL and (b) nickel LMM peaks showing the nickel silicide at the interface of the nickel film and silicon wafer When acquiring narrow energy window scans, it is beneficial to run the instrument under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... A. , and Cavaleiro A. , Fretting Behaviour of W-Si Coated Steels in Vacuum Environments , Wear , Vol 261 , 2006 , p 79 – 85 10.1016/j.wear.2005.09.025 59. Liskiewicz T. and Fouvry S. , Development of a Friction Energy Capacity Approach to Predict the Surface Coating Endurance under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the possibility of joint porosity when filler metals with volatile constituents are used in vacuum brazing, and the susceptibility of silver-brazed ferritic and martensitic stainless steel that contain little or no nickel to interface corrosion if the filler metal does not contain nickel or tin. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Results indicated that the boiler failure was caused by grain-boundary segregation of phosphorous, tin, and nitrogen and the in-service formation of carbide films and granules on the grain boundaries. steam chest fracture high-temperature oxidation chromium alloy steel grain boundary defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... films, or the presence of contamination at an interface between two layers. Because of its excellent spatial resolution, elemental mapping is one of the most common modes of operation with AES. A map is a two-dimensional display of Auger electron signal intensity for a select element from a given...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., at 4 K (−452 °F) in liquid helium resulted in high friction but little wear, very similar to the situation in high vacuum (see the section “Vacuum” in this article). The explanation was similar; that is, oxide films did not grow at this temperature. At 77 K (−320 °F), the friction and wear were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... attachment and film for use in photographing metallographic specimens Equipment and materials for mounting and etching specimens A handheld single-lens reflex 35-mm camera, with macrolenses and film A pocket-size magnifier, and a ruler or scale A hacksaw and blades for cutting specimens...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the aluminum clad and the fuel core of spent fuel are presented in the next four sections. Oxide Films on Aluminum Aluminum Corrosion Mechanisms Uranium Metal Corrosion Uranium-Aluminum Alloy Fuel Two nested Mark 31A slugs were removed in 1995 from underwater storage in L-basin and brought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectrum can reveal the potential effect of charging, because the background will intersect the zero axis of the spectrum at the effective accelerating voltage of the incident electron beam. One common way to eliminate or reduce charging is to use a variable-pressure or low-vacuum SEM, which brings up...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fatigue of Bearing Steel Coated with Physical Vapor Deposition TiN films: Coating Response to Cyclic Contact Stress and Physical Mechanisms Underlying Coating Effect on the Fatigue Life , Wear , Vol 215 , 1998 , p 191 – 204 52. Meier zu Kocker G. , Santner E. , and Loffelbein B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Alkire R. and Nicolaides G. , Differential Aeration Corrosion of a Passivating Metal under a Moist Film of Locally Variable Thickness , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 121 ( No. 2 ), Feb 1974 , p 183 , 10.1149/1.2401778 11. Alkire R. and Nicolaides G. , The Existence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Lockheed-Georgia Company Fig. 3 Potential ranges of environmentally assisted cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated at pits near the pitting potential. Vertical dashed lines define potential range over which nonpassivating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nickel, 600 Hydrogen gas charged at 723 K, tested at room temperature K500 Cathodic charge, seawater Fig. 3 Potential ranges of environmentally assisted cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated at pits near the pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). These inhibitors form a surface film when used in high concentrations. Chromates also act as effective inhibitors when used at concentrations much lower than those required to produce active-passive transitions. At these lower concentrations, chromates act as cathodic inhibitors in neutral solutions. However...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and cool oil makes it possible to load gear surfaces to stresses approaching the critical limit of the gear metal without failure of the lubricating film. The maximum load that can be carried by gear teeth also depends on the velocity of sliding between the surfaces, because the heat generated varies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... K. , Biscondi M. : Grain boundary penetration of nickel by liquid bismuth as a film of nanometric thickness . Scripta Mater. 43 , 943 – 949 ( 2000 ) 10.1016/S1359-6462(00)00518-2 17. Lynch S.P. : Environmentally assisted cracking: overview of evidence for an adsorption...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... d M < 100 mm (4 in.) d M ≧ 100 mm (4 in.) Extreme cleanliness Particle size within lubricant film thickness Laboratory conditions 1 1 High cleanliness Oil filtered through extremely fine filter Sealed, greased bearings 0.8–0.6 0.9–0.8 Standard cleanliness Oil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in liquid media The length of the boiling stage can be greatly shortened by mechanically breaking down the vapor film with vigorous agitation, such as that provided by impellers, jets, or spray cooling. Even so, insulating bubbles of vapor may collect in inside corners, blind holes, keyways...