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film thickness measurements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was a sintered thick film that was coated with a protective glass film after laser trimming and finished with an epoxy coating. Continuity through the resistive element was established by solder attachments to the assembly lead frame through edge terminations. Fig. 1 Chip detail schematic, indicating chip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0009190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... than the measured oil sump temperature. The following data for the ISO VG 100 lubricant was obtained from Fig. and : μ 0 = 66 cP = 0.96 × 10 -6 reyns and α = 1.02 × 10 -4 in. 2 /lbf. Figure 1 shows a plot of the film thickness versus position on the pinion tooth. The minimum film thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Topographical measurements of surfaces can be performed using a variety of instruments; these are typically divided into contact or noncontact-based methods. Such methods are useful to quantify wear volumes, thickness and volumes of transfer films, and surface roughness of materials. A range of noncontact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... operation; not sensitive to discontinuities less than 1–2% thickness of total metal; complex shapes are difficult to analyze Permits visual analysis of buried discontinuities or components in assembly. Also possible to measure near-surface strain Metals, foods, films, nonmetals, composites, assemblies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Recommendations Injection of ferrous sulfate just upstream of the condenser can aid the formation of protective oxide films. From the preceding discussion, the most obvious corrective measure would be to eliminate sulfide contamination. The prime source of such contamination appears to be the accumulation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the austenite dendrite primary arms ( Fig. 2 ). Higher magnification micrographs show that these macrovoids are partially filled with a chromium oxide film with thickness ranging from 1 to 2µm ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Large macrovoids detected at the inner section (a). Interdendritic attack showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... be milled from the surface. With a proper understanding of the material, it is possible to determine the amount of material that is removed from the surface over a given sputtering time period. This facilitates measuring the approximate thickness of a given surface layer. Because of the extreme sensitivity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... heating, because the oxide layer was about 0.008 mm (0.0003 in.) thick and thus could not have been only the normal passivated film, which is too thin to measure. During examination of this joint, another such assembly broke at the brazed joint when the bellows was subjected to slight deflection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... arrangement, surface roughness), bearing materials, lubrication mechanism (hydrodynamic, hydrostatic, elastohydrodynamic, squeeze film), lubricant and possibilities of its contamination, and reasons for load unbalance so that appropriate measures are implemented to minimize the failure of sliding bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (a) Electrode type Electrode description (b) (c) Insulating materials 1 Opposing cylinders 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, 25 mm (1 in.) thick with edges rounded to 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius Flat sheets of paper, films, fabrics, rubber, molded plastics, laminates, boards, glass, mica, and ceramic 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This interaction is popularly referred to as metal-metal contact, which is not accurate. In any case, this interaction causes deformation and fracture of the beating surface on both micro- and macroscopic scales. If a bearing is operating in the thick fluid-film regime and if η N / p decreases, h...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that has a diameter greater than 25 mm (1 in.) and that is thick enough for transmission losses to be significant (usually 3.2 mm, or ⅛ in., or greater). Any light scattered at greater than 2.5° is measured as haze. Haze results from the diffuse scattering from internal material inhomogeneities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... may drop. This measure was ultimately recommended, deemed more effective and cheaper. Blistering Cracking (fracturing) Hydrogen sulfide Natural gas Pipelines Fe-0.22C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A welded natural gas line of 400 mm O.D. and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the liquid film is expected to damp the impact pressure on the wall material, but it is not easy to evaluate the damping effect experimentally because of the difficulty in measuring the liquid-film thickness and the resultant impact pressure on the wall material at the same instant. Although there are a few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... thickness ( t min ) greater than the minimum measured thickness ( t mm ) could be used at normal operating conditions, or by establishing maximum operating conditions at t mm with and without a corrosion allowance (CA). Level 2 FFS assessment guidelines in Part 4 of the FFS code (2007) were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... areas is used to establish initial dimensions from which forming strains are measured. Circle grid strain analysis uses a grid of circles having a diameter of typically either 2.5 or 5.0 mm (0.1 or 0.2 in.). Calibrated polyester film strips are available to directly measure strains on deformed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the order of 1 x 10−7 cu cm/s (6 x 10−8 cu in./s). Optical metallography revealed numerous pits and cracks on the surfaces of the bellow convolutes, which had been welded to one another using an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process. Microhardness measurements indicated that the bellows had not been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... measured as large as 7.44 cm (2.93 in.). Considering that most, if not all, of the tube swelling occurred on the fireside of the tubes, these differences in measurement represent an approximate 30% growth in the radius. Tube wall thickness measurements taken along the coldside averaged 0.356 em (0.140...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The radiographic results showed various film densities indicating corrosion or variations in wall thickness. Secondary cracking was also observed beyond the more apparent primary crack. Three cross sections were removed: one from the perforated area, one from the crack area, and one from an area considered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of a cylindrical tank used for the road transport of concentrated sulphuric acid revealed severe blistering of the plates, mainly over the crown and more particularly on the first ring. The tank, made in 1958, was of welded construction, the material being mild steel plate, 7 32 ″ thick...