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film formation modes

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Photographic Documentation Composition Field Photographic Documentation Specifications Film Photography Film Imaging Film Speed Film Emulsion Camera Accessories Camera Flashes Digital Photography Digital Imaging Image Size/Resolution File Formats Digital Cameras...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Oxidative wear: mild wear regime where contacting bodies are separated by oxide films reducing metal-to-metal contact Adhesion: a more severe wear regime characterized by material smearing and transfer Abrasion: equally severe, one-body or two-body modes lead to the formation of ploughing grooves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the material. As the thickness of the film increases, the rate of formation falls and ultimately becomes insignificant. In certain environments a magnetite film possesses self-healing properties and rapidly reforms when damaged, so that if bare metal becomes exposed locally the protective film is quickly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contacting bodies are separated by oxide films, thus reducing metal-to-metal contact Adhesion: a more severe wear regime characterized by material smearing and transfer Abrasion: equally severe, one-, two-, or three-body modes lead to the formation of plowing grooves Surface fatigue: more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and content. Source: Ref 52 Fig. 1 Steps leading to adhesive wear. (a) Microjoints. (b) Deformation of asperities and removal of surface films. (c) Shearing and material transfer. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 2 Example of adhesive wear characterized by excessive material transfer, shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 4 Dimpled grain-boundary fracture in a small wedge-opening fracture sample, which aided formation of methane bubbles on the grains of 2.25Cr-1.0Mo steel exposed to high-pressure (21 MPa, or 3 ksi) hydrogen at 475 °C (887 °F). This is below the temperature where hydrogen attack would occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine. Investigation into the processing history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that induced SCC, with IG and transgranular modes shown Fig. 10 Photographs of a ruptured Inconel 600 steam generator tube. (a) Tube rupture. (b) SEM fractograph showing the IG fracture surface. (c) Micrograph showing the IG attack that extended from the OD surface Fig. 1 SEM images...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the formation of a protector magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) film in the conditions of boiler operation. However, failed tubes as consequence of corrosive process show thick deposits of nonprotective Fe 3 O 4 over or close to the failure sites, whereas the adjacent steel sites keep normal working conditions [ 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A failed SAE-192 carbon steel tube from a 6.2-MPa (900-psig), 200-Mg/h (180-ton/h) capacity refinery boiler was analyzed to determine its failure mode. Optical and SEM examination results were combined with knowledge of the boiler operating conditions to conclude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of cracking by SMIE can also decrease (or cracks can be arrested) if air gains access to cracks, which becomes more likely as cracks get longer. Oxide films are likely to inhibit surface-diffusion, and preferential adsorption of oxygen or oxide-film formation at crack tips will inhibit adsorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact. This article provides a basic understanding of RCF and a broad overview of materials and manufacturing techniques commonly used in industry to improve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in seawater piping evaporators and heat exchanger tubes. The resistance of these alloys is due to the formation of protective films which are reinforced in the presence of iron [ 2 ]. However, the poor resistance of C70600 to salt water high in sulfides has been documented [ 3 ]. Iron is also known to shift...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... composing the termination was separate and distinct. There was no evidence of intermetallic formation between the cermet and thick-film ink. The presence of the dark-appearing amorphous phase at this interface was confirmed ( Fig. 8 ). Samples from group 2, those that had been processed through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to caustic gouging Fig. 33 Inner-surface view of the failed tube showing scale crust Fig. 34 Close-up view of transverse section of the tube. A groove formation with wavelike contours filled with scale is seen in the bottom portion. Fig. 36 Energy-dispersive spectroscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... M. , and Chen Y.K. , The Friction and Wear of Polymers in Non-Conformal Contacts , Wear , Vol 200 , 1996 , p 83 – 94 51. Bahadur S. , Gong D. , and Anderegg J.W. , The Role of Copper Compounds as Fillers in Transfer Film Formation and Wear of Nylon , Wear , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... For example, during electrolysis, the potential of an anode becomes more noble, and the potential of the cathode becomes more active than their respective open-circuit (or reversible) potentials. Often, polarization occurs from the formation of a film on the electrode surface. The magnitude of the shift...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the formation of a film on the electrode surface. The magnitude of the shift depends on the environment, as does the initial potential. If the more noble metal or alloy is more easily polarized, its potential is shifted more toward the more active metal or alloy potential. The shift in potential of the more...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth, alkaline...