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fiber-metal laminates

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... procedures and resumed production of nozzle liners with more tightly controlled fiber/fabric materials. Proof stress Quality control Silica-phenolic (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures I. Introduction This report describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be specified to examine a narrow segment of the total waveform and thus characterize the response from a thin (one- or two-ply thick) plane through the material or the bondline between two laminates. Figure 12 shows that fiber orientation and interlaminar echoes from between the two plies are emphasized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials and resins. It explains how absorbed moisture affects a wide range of properties, including glass transition temperature, flexural and shear modulus,creep, stress relaxation, swelling, tensile and yield strength, and fatigue cracking. It provides relevant data on common polymers, resins, and fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., such as vehicle fender liners. Stamping is also used with heavily reinforced sheet to produce stiff, single-thickness components that replace metal stampings. Its main benefit is weight reduction and resistance to corrosion. With carbon-fiber cloth reinforcement of high-temperature-resistant crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-melt process (e.g., unidirectional carbon fiber or glass fiber tows) or a solvent-based impregnation process of woven glass cloth (electrical laminate prepregs and other B-staged prepregs). During resin infusion into the fibers, process control of temperature and pressure is necessary to ensure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...–4.6 Polyethylene terephthalate 3.25 Cellulose cotton fiber (dry) 5.4 Cellulose kraft fiber (dry) 5.9 Cellulose cellophane (dry) 6.6 Cellulose triacetate 4.7 Polyvinyl acetate 3.7–3.8 Polycarbonate 2.9–3.0 Phenolics (cellulose-filled) 4–15 Phenolics (glass-filled) 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... than that of the cable material. The experimenters succeeded in reducing the thermal contraction to match that of the metal without sacrificing the mechanical properties of the composite. Anisotropic Effects In the previous example, filler-matrix contraction is isotropic. In fiber-reinforced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which contain the greatest number of wires and have fiber cores, will stretch more than all-metal ropes with fewer wires and therefore less flexibility. Stretch resulting from the movement of the wires is of two types: constructional and elastic. When a rope is first placed under load, the resulting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the lamination and introduced delamination along these weak planes. The computer simulation of stress and deformation of the lap joint arrangement between the vessel shell and nozzle demonstrated that the fillet weld induces high localized stresses between the fillet weld and the outer plies or fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., microcracking, and microcutting; 2, sliding and wear thinning of fibers; 3, interfacial separation of fiber and matrix; 4, fiber cracking; 5, back-transferred polymer or organic fibers (film and layered wear debris) showing delamination and cracking; 6, metallic and wear debris transferred from the counterface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the lengthwise (axial) direction of the fiber. The design of such processing would not be possible without an understanding of chemical structure. This introductory article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and thus their eventual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Fig. 8 Ten different types of flaws that may be found in rolled bars. (a) Inclusions. (b) Laminations from spatter (entrapped splashes) during the pouring. (c) Slivers. (d) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... penetration Electric welds (a) Upturned fiber cracks Weld-line inclusions Cold weld Excessive trim Contact burns Field weld defects Causes of service failures Defects in the pipe body Mechanical damage Environmental causes Corrosion (external or internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... fabric filler 25–65 4–9.5 0.4–0.6 6–9 0.87–1 100–160 15–23 60–100 9–15 95–120 HRM PF, cast, no filler 40–65 6–9.5 1.5–2.0 3 0.43 85–115 12–17 75–115 11–17 93–120 HRM Polyester, glass-fiber filler 35–65 5–9.5 … 11–14 1.6–2.0 140–175 20–25 95–115 14–17 … UF, alpha...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... corresponding to the load imposed varies with the construction of the rope. Generally, the more flexible ropes, which contain the greatest number of small wires and have fiber cores, will stretch more than all-metal ropes with fewer, larger-diameter wires. Stretch resulting from the movement of the wires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... parts can be categorized as: Stheets with a flat extruded cross section greater than 0.4 mm (0.016 in.) thick ( Fig. 1a ) Film with a flat extruded cross section less than 0.4 mm (0.016 in.) thick ( Fig. 1a ) Annular extrudates with a hollow circular (tubular) cross section ( Fig. 1b ) Fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crystallinity can be attained. Crystallinity is used to extreme effect in the aramid fiber poly( p -phenylene terephthalamide) to produce a highly oriented, crystalline structure whose extremely strong hydrogen bonding gives it not only a high T g but also a T m that is above its decomposition temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The UT signal response can also be used to determine the possible physical root cause of the sound, such as fiber breakage, buckling or loose or broken components of a structure. There are also several subsets of the standard NDE methods that are available when either the part has a large or complex...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the implant was broken at the stem. Segregation, inclusions, and microconstituents are aligned and elongated in directions determined by the metal flow, resulting in mechanical fibering. Centerline segregation in the ingot caused center cracks in forging operations, and this acted as a stress concentrator...