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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0048039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract One of six cables on a passenger elevator was found fractured during a routine inspection. The cable is made of 16-mm steel wire rope designated 8 x 19 G Preformed Extra High Strength Special Traction Elevator Cable with fiber core. Samples of wire from the cable revealed two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract During the lifting of a piece of machinery by means of an overhead travelling crane the hook fractured suddenly. The load was attached to the hook by means of fiber rope slings and rupture occurred in a plane which appeared to coincide with the sling loop nearest to the back...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract The 16 mm diam 6 x 37 fiber-core improved plow steel wire rope on a scrapyard crane failed after two weeks of service under normal loading conditions. This type of rope was made of 0.71 to 0.75% carbon steel wires and a tensile strength of 1696 to 1917 MPa. The rope broke when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to resin curing were the most similar in nature. This result indicated that it would be beneficial to examine humidity aged polyester specimens to determine if similar types if resin anomalies were present. Fig. 6 SEM photomicrograph of suspected resin anomaly within the fiber tows in an exterior...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Plastics or polymers are used in a variety of engineering and nonengineering applications where they are subjected to surface damage and wear. This article discusses the classification of polymer wear mechanisms based on the methodologies of defining the types of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Photographs from single-side perpendicular lighting of a fatigue fracture. (a) Single-side incandescent perpendicular lighting. (b) Single-side incandescent perpendicular lighting with an opposing white reflecting card Fig. 10 Fracture surface fiber optic ring lighting. (a) Fiber optic ring light...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... initiated at the outside surface. Metallographic analysis showed that the fracture originated in the upturned fibers adjacent to the ERW bond line. Cross sections of the weld were removed from three random locations in the test sample. At each location, the up turned fibers of the weld zone contained bands...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting Fig. 17 Exemplar crankshaft fracture illuminated with incandescent fiber optic top lighting This type of lighting produces a more diffused illumination when photographing reflective fracture surfaces and provides excellent overall documentation of the component conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... appeared in part as a shear fracture ( Fig. 2 ). Accordingly, stresses were evidently high. The fracture originated in the inner fiber, as usual. The fatigue fracture ran along the fiber for a short stretch ( Fig. 3 ) and then continued as a torsion fracture located at 45° to the longitudinal axis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which contain the greatest number of wires and have fiber cores, will stretch more than all-metal ropes with fewer wires and therefore less flexibility. Stretch resulting from the movement of the wires is of two types: constructional and elastic. When a rope is first placed under load, the resulting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract A number of plastic sleeves used in an automotive application cracked after assembly but prior to installation into the mating components. The sleeves were specified to be injection molded from a 20% glass-fiber-reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resin. After molding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was observed on the damaged side. Particles of sand, paint, or plastic, fibers from the cartridge, brass, and steel were viewed in the brown residue on the filter cartridge under a low power microscope and later confirmed by chemical analysis. Large amount of iron was identified by application of a magnet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... are comparatively more rigid than conventional wire ropes with fiber cores and therefore are more susceptible to the adverse effects of bending stresses. The reasons for premature in-service wire rope failures are rather complex but frequently may be attributed to inappropriate wire quality and/or abusive operating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... header for the detonator assembly is diallyl phthalate (DAP) which also contains glass fibers and clay as fillers and various dyes for component identification. The 38 µm (0.0015 in.) bridgewire is pure gold which is soldered to phosphor bronze electrodes using a 37.5 wt % Pb, 37.5 wt % Sn, and 25 wt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A splined shaft on a wood chip-to-fiber refiner failed during equipment start-up. The shaft broke into two pieces at a location close to the end of the splined part of the shaft. The failed component showed the classical fatigue-cracking fracture face. The shaft had a diam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP) readily stress craze, but crazing also occurs in non-fiber-forming plastics such as PC and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Crazes occur in type I (normally brittle in tension) amorphous polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and PMMA, under monotonic tensile loading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... direction perpendicular to the fibers Table 2 Number density of processing defects in the tensile fracture surface of metal-matrix composite specimen with loading direction perpendicular to the fibers Type of processing defect Number density (per mm 2 ) In the tensile fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The fracture cause had to be determined in a three-cylinder crankshaft made of chrome steel 34Cr4 (Material No. 1.7033) according to DIN 17200. The fracture occurred after only 150 h of operation. The fracture was of the bend fatigue type which originated in the fillet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... The inherent friction coefficient between bare steel strands mandates presence of adequate lubrication to allow the requisite wire movement. Wire rope constructions are identified by the number of strands, the number of wires per strand, the type of core, the “lay” (length) direction, left or right...