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fiber orientation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of 2 to 4 at temperatures of 80 to 90 deg C (176 to 194 deg F). The fracture was unusual in that it was of a fibrous nature, the fibers-which were orientated radially-were readily detachable. The surface of the spindle adjacent to the fracture had an etched appearance and the mode of cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
..., and the micrograph showed that cracks ran along these folds oriented according to the fiber. The fissures, with the exception of the hardening crack, were partly filled with oxide and showed signs of decarburization at the edges. From this it could be assumed that parts of the external skin had been forced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., aspect ratio, distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and the quality of bonding with the matrix), and operating conditions. Fibers are far more wear resistant than the matrix and hence control the wear of composite. Continuous fiber-reinforced composites with a thermoset-polymer matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... ( Fig. 1d ) taken from the locking collar shows that the material contains microstructural bands that are oriented in the rolling direction (RD). The alloy steel plate used in this application contained significant microstructural fibering or banding. This condition produced considerable anisotropy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the counterface, making fibers and layers over one another. The orientation of the fibers in the transfer film can easily change if the sliding direction is changed. Reprinted with permission from Ref 4 The quasi-adiabatic interfacial wear involves glassy thermoplastics (not cross linked) and cross...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination with the unaided eye and proceeds to higher magnification, usually by stereomicroscopic examination. A handheld magnifier may also be of assistance at this stage of the investigation. Illumination at varying degrees of obliqueness and orientation can be helpful in evaluating fracture conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., oblique/tangential lighting at varying oblique angles and orientations is often useful in evaluating the fracture conditions present. Inspection and photographic documentation of as-manufactured surfaces is, however, benefited by illumination by diffused and reflected lighting, especially if the component...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by uniaxial load perpendicular to the fibers. The three vertical sections are mutually at an angle of 120┬░ to one another, and as they are vertical sections, all of them contain the vertical axis. The MMC contains aligned alumina fibers in an aluminum-alloy matrix ( Ref 22 ). Fig. 8 Profile orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was generated by the orientation of river patterns and resin microflow during microscopic examination of sectioned samples of the panel. It was discovered that crack initiation occurred at the periphery of a fastener hole located at the front spar. Propagation occurred chordwise across the compression-loaded...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a fiber, plastic, or elastomer ( Fig. 1 ), depending on the relative strength of intermolecular bonds and molecular structure or geometry. Noncrystalline polymers with weak intermolecular forces are usually elastomers or rubbers at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, T g . In contrast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the corrosion products associated with the fissure were iron and nickel sulfides. Most Probable Cause Remedial Action How Failure Could Have Been Prevented The digester is used to cook wood chips to break down lignin and release fibers, which are natural components of wood. The batch process begins...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a critical value at a pressure of 20 MPa (3 ksi), above which a rapid increase occurs. Fiber orientation with respect to the sliding direction is another variable with these materials. Here the specific wear rate was negligible at angles of 0 and 90┬░ between fiber axis and sliding direction, but showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to interpret these advanced UT methods, and a an intuitive sense of the orientation, size, and position of the actual discontinuities detected may be very challenging. Focused UT is available in cases where there may be significant attenuation in a component such as a composite piece...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crack initiation site Fracture surface orientation relative to component geometry and loading conditions Helps separate loading modes I, II, III Identifies macroscale ductile and brittle fracture. (see Fig. 2 ) Both flat fracture and shear lips present on fracture surface Crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the use of stainless steel ( 2 ) or fiber composite ( 3 , 4 ) reinforcements. At a moderate increase in overall project costs, stainless steel rebar would not be as susceptible to corrosion as mild steel rebar. Polymer and fiber composite reinforcements would eliminate the causes of corrosion problems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., specifically oriented grains tend to crack, leaving a shiny, faceted appearance easily differentiated from dull and fibrous, dimple-rupture features. Cleavage in a steel sample is shown in Fig. 4 . Face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals (for example, copper, aluminum, nickel, and austenitic steels) exhibit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and fibering Burnished surface and controlled surface quality However, the beneficial factors of deformation processing can become a potential problem if the process is not carefully understood. Potential problems of the deformation process also include: Fracture-related problems: for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., buckling) or postfailure damage Visible nicks or gouges Possible crack initiation site Fracture surface orientation relative to component geometry and loading conditions Helps separate loading modes I, II, III Identifies macroscale ductile and brittle fracture ( Fig. 2 ) Both flat fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and scratch the surface. The tendency for the abrasive particle to rotate also depends on the abrasive particle shape, with angular particles being more likely to slide rather than roll. Increasing the nominal force acts to constrain the abrasive particle in its orientation to the wear surface, thereby...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in its orientation to the wear surface, thereby increasing the wear rate. The effect of velocity on wear behavior is associated with the dissipation of kinetic energy during abrasive/wear material contact. For a large number of abrasive wear environments, the velocity of abrasive particles...