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fiber distortion

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occurs at strains beyond the yield point. As shown in Fig. 4 , the beam of low-carbon steel, which strain hardens only slightly, exhibited no distortion when the calculated maximum fiber stress was equal to the yield strength (at a stress ratio of 1.00). However, this beam collapsed at a load equivalent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steel and of stainless steel, and the permanent deflection at the loading point was measured. Maximum fiber stresses were calculated from the applied load and original specimen dimensions. This type of test provides a simplistic but useful concept of distortion by showing how much distortion occurs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 849 203 van der Waals Ar 7.8 1.8 Cl 2 31 7.4 Hydrogen NH 3 35 8.4 H 2 O 51 12.2 Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 1 Typical stress-strain curve for a fiber, a plastic, and an elastomer Fig. 2 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of ductile polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that failed in tension because of overloading. Excessive wear on a 16-mm ( 5 8 -in.) diam 6 × 37 (6 strands of 37 wires each) fiber-core improved plow steel wire rope is described in Example 3 in this article. Corrosion failures are also relatively frequent because of the environments in which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-angle delta ( E ″/ E ′) is also calculated. A typical DMA thermogram is presented in Fig. 12 . Standard solid samples evaluated via TMA should be of regular shape, having two flat, parallel sides. Additionally, fiber and film samples can also be tested with minimal preparation. Experiments...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mode image. (a) Secondary electron imaging mode where particles are not distinguished by composition. (b) Image from backscatter mode, which shows the lower atomic number particles (in this case aluminum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8) as darker than the iron particles (3A and 7). Note also that the fibers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Engineered components fail predominantly in four major ways: fracture, corrosion, wear, and undesirable deformation (i.e., distortion). Typical fracture mechanisms feature rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... direction perpendicular to the fibers Table 2 Number density of processing defects in the tensile fracture surface of metal-matrix composite specimen with loading direction perpendicular to the fibers Type of processing defect Number density (per mm 2 ) In the tensile fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the shell in the quench chamber wall The gasifier vessel had a fiber optic system mounted on the outer wall of the combustion chamber to monitor its skin temperature and to alarm if the skin temperature exceeded 315 °C. This temperature sensing system, however, was not in service at the time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of prior macroscale visible permanent distortion to cause shut down of operating equipment, nor can it be arrested by removal of the load, except for very special circumstances. Note that the terms ductile and brittle also can be and are applied to fracture on a microscopic level. At the macroscale...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... between copper layers. A PCB contains as many as 14 layers of copper and fiberglass-resin layers. The glass fibers in the fiberglass have a hardness of 500 HV, while the copper has a hardness of 40 HV. The drilling process is computer operated and numerically controlled. Typical operating conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and fibering Burnished surface and controlled surface quality However, the beneficial factors of deformation processing can become a potential problem if the process is not carefully understood. Potential problems of the deformation process also include: Fracture-related problems: for example...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement. Macroscale fractographic features Table 1 Macroscale fractographic features Mark/Indication Implication Visible distortion Plastic deformation exceeded yield strength and may indicate instability (necking, buckling) or post-failure damage Visible nicks or gouges Possible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and/or brittle cracking. Fracture mode identification chart Table 1 Fracture mode identification chart Method Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive fracture mode Ductile overload Brittle overload Fatigue Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a structural framework and pressurized internally with nitrogen, or of fiber-reinforced composites with a polymeric foam core. As with cavitation erosion, damage from liquid-droplet impacts starts with deformation and work hardening of metal surfaces, characterized by rumpling and emergence of boundaries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads • Dull, fibrous fracture • Shear lips • Little or no distortion • Flat fracture • Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy • Rays or chevrons point to origin • Flat progressive zone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The construction includes the number of strands, the individual wires within a strand, and whether the core is fiber, wire strand, or an independent wire-rope core. The orientation of the wires and strands can be right regular lay, left regular lay, right lang lay, left lang lay, or alternate lay. Specialty ropes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Barrel-shape and hourglass-shape journals. These types of journals can penetrate the oil film and result in bearing failure because of increased loading in localized areas. Fig. 13 Lower (left) and upper (right) halves of trimetal bearings for a diesel engine that failed because of distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of failure investigation and corrective action. Fatigue failures in shafts, such as bending fatigue, torsional fatigue, contact fatigue, and axial fatigue, are reviewed. The article provides information on the brittle fracture, ductile fracture, distortion, and corrosion of shafts. Abrasive wear and adhesive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., it is valuable to have a drawing or drawings of the components on hand to check if all parts of an assembly have been supplied and to determine whether apparent distortions are real or were part of the design. Following receipt and documentation, the features of damage can be recorded and their cause(s...