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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A short fracture section of a forged and normalized Ck 35 (DIN 17200) steel slide showed three distinct zones: a dark colored crystalline area, an incipient crack propagating into a far advanced, rubbed fracture surface, and a fine crystalline final break. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This explains the fracture of bolt No.1. Bolt No.2 very likely was overstressed during the impact caused by the breaking of the bolt No. 1. Its fracture was furthermore promoted by the unfavorable fiber direction due to wrong machining from the preformed material. Selected Reference Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gears and cams of various machines, tires, break pads, conveyors, hoppers, automobile body parts, aircraft, spacecrafts, hip/knee joint replacement, roller-skating wheels, and household appliances (washing machine, tubs, etc.). Wear of material parts is a very common cause of failure or low working life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that failed in tension because of overloading. Excessive wear on a 16-mm ( 5 8 -in.) diam 6 × 37 (6 strands of 37 wires each) fiber-core improved plow steel wire rope is described in Example 3 in this article. Corrosion failures are also relatively frequent because of the environments in which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... break by brittle fracture on impact with the cutting edge of the drill bit. Intense stress develops under the surface of the glass fiber where it makes contact with the bit, generating a plastic zone and a median vent crack in the plane of the stress field. Lateral cracks also develop and curve back...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., tensile strength and tear resistance, elongation at break, and hardness. The wear behavior of elastomers is particularly sensitive to the abrasive impingement angle, because this influences the dominant modes of deformation and hence the wear mechanisms. At low impingement angles, tensile tearing occurs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Screens made of stainless steel X5 Cr-Ni-Mo 18 10 (Material No. 1.4401), which were exposed to cooling water from the mouth of a river, became unserviceable after a few months because of the breaking out of parts of the bars. The multiple fracturing of the screen bars...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... handedness, and many other attributes. Rope grades are rated in tons of breaking strength. The individual wires provide strength, whereas the construction dictates service characteristics. It is generally accepted that many smaller wires provide better fatigue resistance, while fewer, larger wires provide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... are comparatively more rigid than conventional wire ropes with fiber cores and therefore are more susceptible to the adverse effects of bending stresses. The reasons for premature in-service wire rope failures are rather complex but frequently may be attributed to inappropriate wire quality and/or abusive operating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Polycrystalline Ceramics and Glass , Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics , Vol 1 , Plenum Press , 1974 , p 309 – 322 • Mecholsky J.J. , Fracture Surface Analysis of Optical Fibers , Ceramics and Glasses , Vol 4 , Engineered Materials Handbook , ASM International , 1991 , p 663 – 668...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of a carbon steel wood pulp digester overlaid with stainless steel revealed a sharply increasing number of cracks in the overlay metal on the internal surface of the digester after 1 and 2 years of service. Applications The digester is used to cook wood chips to break down lignin and release fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and fibering Burnished surface and controlled surface quality However, the beneficial factors of deformation processing can become a potential problem if the process is not carefully understood. Potential problems of the deformation process also include: Fracture-related problems: for example...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 849 203 van der Waals Ar 7.8 1.8 Cl 2 31 7.4 Hydrogen NH 3 35 8.4 H 2 O 51 12.2 Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 1 Typical stress-strain curve for a fiber, a plastic, and an elastomer Fig. 2 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of ductile polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Procedures Fatigue-induced leaks in socket-welded fittings can be expected to “announce” themselves as a leak, therefore leak-before-break arguments apply. Procedures at CPSES ensure that a leak will be reported to the control room. A recent Code Case (N-513) allows operators to perform evaluations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... impingement of liquid droplets, usually water moving at high relative velocities (>50 m/s, or >164 ft/s). Because water droplets cannot move at high velocities without breaking up, the practical problem of liquid-droplet erosion arises when a solid body moves at high velocity through a field of slower...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mode image. (a) Secondary electron imaging mode where particles are not distinguished by composition. (b) Image from backscatter mode, which shows the lower atomic number particles (in this case aluminum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8) as darker than the iron particles (3A and 7). Note also that the fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welds Weld-area cracks Incomplete fusion Porosity Slag inclusions Inclusions at skelp edge Off seam Repair welds Incomplete penetration Electric welds (a) Upturned fiber cracks Weld-line inclusions Cold weld Excessive trim Contact burns Field weld...