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ferrous powders

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Nickel anodes failed in several electrolysis cells in a heavy-water upgrading plant. Dismantling of a cell revealed gouging and the presence of loosely attached black porous masses on the anode. The carbon steel top, plate was severely corroded. An appreciable quantity of black powder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or small-amplitude oscillation is an essential causative factor. Fretting frequently is accompanied by corrosion. Fretting of ferrous materials in air produces a characteristic reddish-brown debris of ferric oxide, which, when mixed with oil or grease, produces debris that is often referred to as “blood...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that occurs between two mating surfaces; initially, it is adhesive in nature, and vibration or small-amplitude oscillation is an essential causative factor. Fretting generates wear debris, which oxidizes, leading to a corrosion-like morphology. Fretting of ferrous materials in air produces a characteristic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... sampling techniques, all involving either transmission or reflection of the infrared energy, can be used to analyze the sample material. This allows the evaluation of materials in all forms, including hard solids, powders, liquids, and gases. Depending on the spectrometer and the corresponding accessories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., which can escape into solution. Corrosion can also be stifled by the formation of electrically insulating deposits on the metal surface. The formation of insoluble white ferrous carbonate, FeCO 3 , as a corrosion product is an example; another is precipitation of calcium and magnesium ions from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Intergranular brittle fracture is very prevalent in ceramic materials and is often present in poorly sintered powder metallurgy constructs. It is necessary for the practicing failure analyst to understand that intergranular brittle fracture is not always due to defects and improper processing. This mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in poorly sintered powder-metallurgy constructs. It is necessary for the practicing failure analyst to understand that intergranular brittle fracture is not always due to defects and improper processing. This mechanism can result from well-controlled processes that provide benefit that can outweigh...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... together in register with one another. Fatigue cracks are most easily recognized when they occur in ductile materials, especially those in the ferrous group ; in the case of cast materials, more especially cast-iron and some of the cast aluminium-base alloys, it is, unfortunately, generally very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes resulted in accelerated failure. The major cause of the shortened tube life was hydrogen sulfide, which was present in seawater at this site at approximately 5 to 10 ppm. Recommendation Injection of ferrous sulfate just upstream of the condenser...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... scale-forming alloys appear to be much more resistant to carburization than the chromia scale-formers ( Ref 16 ). Nitridation Nitridation of alloys in ammonia environments is well known in ammonia and heat treating industries ( Ref 17 ). Nitridation attack by N 2 is known in the powder metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and handling of large chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy-section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally, austenitic 12% Mn steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the surface (arrows). Specimen etched with nital Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the preferred abrasive for ferrous alloys, and SiC is the preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... components involve a nonferrous part and a ferrous counterpart. As an example, Fig. 6(b) shows the wear map of a 7071 aluminum alloy sliding against a hardened steel ( Ref 18 ). When the operating parameters are low, mild wear by tribo-oxidative wear at low temperature takes place. In this case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... it is for castings made of more homogeneous ferrous metals, for which the rate of cooling does not affect the form of the carbon content on a macroscopic scale. The typical microstructure of gray iron is a matrix of pearlite with graphite flakes dispersed throughout. Too-rapid cooling (relative to carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... abrasive for ferrous alloys, and SiC is the preferred abrasive for nonferrous metals and minerals. Wheels have different bond strengths and are recommended based on the suitability of their bond strength and abrasive type for the material to be sectioned. In general, as the hardness of a material increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction. Almost all materials, save perhaps parts made by powder metallurgy processes, demonstrate anisotropic behavior. Anisotropic behavior means that the mechanical properties are different in different directions. For the common wrought products such as bar, extrusion, plate, sheet, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... HV. The microstructure of the metal in the impeller exhibited scattered porosity and carbide particles and appeared to be a sintered powder metallurgy compact. Metallographic examination of a section through the damaged splines and of a section through the adjacent undamaged part of the same...