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ferritizing annealing

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 52 Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images of (a) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing carbide and chi (light) phase (28Cr-53Fe-12Mo-5Ni) with 0.10 mm (0.004 in.) lateral expansion at −195 °C (−320 °F), and (b) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing virtually More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...) Eliminate the grooves; 2) Remove the ferritic bright border; 3) Avoid undercooling in the mold and therefore the formation of granular graphite; 4) Inoculate with finely powdered ferrosilicon into the melt for the same purpose; and, 5) Anneal at lower temperature or eliminate subsequent treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with higher decarburization. Such a region is reproduced in Fig. 6 . Surrounding the ferritic region in the surface structure, a ring of lamellar pearlite is seen, which turns into the granular annealed structure towards the core. Fig. 6 Decarburized region at wire fracture, transverse section, etch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-forming and led to damage by stress corrosion. This would have been the correct method for a ferritic steel, but not austenitic steel, which requires the special heat treatment indicated. When an anneal in the critical region is unavoidable and the indicated additional treatment is impossible or difficult...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Examples of metallic inclusions in steels of various types are presented. The structure of an inclusion in an annealed Fe-1C-1.5Cr steel consisted of ferrite with lamellar pearlite. The carbon content of the inclusion was therefore considerably lower than that of the chromium steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., and viewed at 100×. The specimen from the original sprocket ( Fig. 2 ) exhibited a pearlitic microstructure (approximately 60% pearlite), indicating a carbon content of 0.48%. The specimen from the replacement sprocket ( Fig. 3 ) had much less pearlite (estimated at 20%) in a ferrite matrix, indicating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... a week by transgranular SCC. Annealed type 430 ferritic stainless steel was subsequently suggested to prevent further failures. Basic oxygen furnaces Materials selection Precipitator wires 304 UNS S30400 430 UNS 54300 1008 UNS G10080 Corrosion fatigue Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract An experimental high-temperature rotary valve was found stuck due to growth and distortion after approximately 100 h. Gas temperatures were suspected to have been high due to overfueled conditions. Both the rotor and housing in which it was stuck were annealed ferritic ductile iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... quality St 37-2 N, a steel with about 0.5% C had been used. The microstructure with the coarse ferrite network indicated that the forged eye bolt had been normalized either at too high a temperature or not at all. In any case the anneal at 900 deg C produced a considerably more finely grained structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ( Fig. 1c ). Conclusions Examination of the micrographs ( Fig. 1b and c ) indicated that the elbows had been given the usual annealing and normalizing treatment for ferritizing malleable iron. This resulted in lower resistance to erosion and corrosion than pearlitic malleable iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-centered cubic stainless steel. However, carbide precipitation occurs much faster in ferritic stainless steel, due to the higher C contents and much lower solubility of C in its bcc atomic structure. Unlike austenitic alloys, alloy 430 can be annealed at temperatures within its sensitization range...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... exhibited a similar structure. The normal microstructure of 1541 steel for the specified heat treatment was annealed ferrite and pearlite. The chemical composition was normal for 1541 steel. No steelmaking or tubemaking defects were found in the specimen. Conclusions Cracking of the top...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision of the design of the pipe flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... 305 85% cold worked 1 1.142 Grade CF8 castings (Type 304) 3 Solution annealed with 1.8% Delta Ferrite 1.150 Solution annealed with 8.0% Delta Ferrite 1.659 Room Temperature Tensile and Hardness Tests Room temperature tensile testing of new, returned, and laboratory prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showed the dark incipient crack was present before the last heat treatment and was oxidized and decarburized prior to the conclusion of the annealing process. The crack ran perpendicular to the fiber, so it was not formed before or during forging. It was a thermal stress crack produced during flame...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... steel and annealed at the rolled joint to 100 mm length. The outer pipe surface was strongly pitted by corrosion all around the rolled joint. In the vicinity of the steam chamber the pipe wall had oxidized through from the exterior to the interior at one spot. Adjoining this spot, grooves caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... Investigation (visual inspection, and micrographs of sections with electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH and then again after re-polishing and etching with Murakami's reagent) supported the conclusions that the casting never received a proper solution anneal. Recommendations included possible corrosion-screening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... which were somewhat elongated as shown in Fig. 7 . The remained plastic deformation was observed owing to insufficient annealing. As the distance from the fracture increased, the network of the ferrite and pearlite was observed in the other five specimens. The microstructure of specimens taken from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as they can always generate in annealing boxes or protective gases with small amounts of air or moisture present. How does a skin decarburisation become evident to a metallographer? It can go so far that the carbon has completely disappeared at the outer edge. After DIN 17 014 this state is called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... In order to determine whether heat treatment would have any appreciable effect on the notch-brittle behaviour of this material a specimen was cut from the intrados of the hook and subjected to a sub-critical anneal at 650° C. for one hour. It was then notched and when tested by slow bending deformed...