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ferric chloride test

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... method. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x/500x metallographic examination of sections etched with a mixture of ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, and methanol, and bend tests) supported the conclusions that cracking of the airfoil sections was caused by thermal fatigue and was contributed to by low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by producing longitudinal and transverse sections. Each direction shows different information. (a) Medium-carbon steel plate. Nital etch. Transverse and (b) longitudinal sections. (c) Copper water pipe. Ferric chloride etch. Transverse and (d) longitudinal sections The practices that should be used when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., crevice corrosion and, most importantly, corrosion-enhanced cavitation erosion contributed to the impeller failure. In addition to the aqueous hydrochloric acid environment, chlorine gas and ferric chloride are potential corrosive agents. Solidification cracks (casting defects) on blade tips served...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and passivation were not carried out properly, iron impurities on the heater surfaces had not been removed completely. The iron particles on the surface rusted during exposure to the humid atmosphere. Rust generally contains ferric ions and also collects moisture and chloride ions from the atmosphere...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to their relative potentials for a given electrolytic solution. For example, the galvanic series of potentials for metals in a chloride-containing aqueous solution (i.e., seawater) is often used for purposes of general comparison. This series is shown in Fig. 3 . When two metals of a galvanic cell are widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-related failures and in formulating preventive measures. Fig. 1 Forms of corrosion. Adapted from Ref 1 More detailed discussions of the fundamentals and mechanisms of corrosion are provided in the References listed at the end of this article and in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that the acid tanks failed by chloride-induced pitting initiated by microbial activity. Further, the spent solvent tank failed by a similar, but anaerobic mechanism. The use of the effluent for the hydrostatic test and the failure to remove it and clean and dry the tanks was the primary cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than air-free acids. Oxygen reduction simply provides another means of electron disposal. The same effect is observed if any oxidizer is present in acid solutions. A frequent impurity in commercial hydrochloric acid is the ferric ion (Fe 3+ ), present as ferric chloride. Metals corrode much more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... chloride content had been used for hydrostatic testing but had not been drained from three tanks and had stagnated for a year or more. In the presence of this high-chloride service water, corrosion had occurred at crevices and pitting had occurred at other locations at the bottom inside surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A problem with an airborne corrodent occurred in one case in which packing boxes became contaminated with calcium chloride from road-deicing and dust-control operations. The corrodent washed over stainless steel condenser tubes, causing ferric chloride pitting, which perforated the tubes before they were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... simply provides another means of electron disposal. The same effect is observed if any oxidizer is present in acid solutions. A frequent impurity in commercial hydrochloric acid is the ferric ion ( Fe 3 + ), present as ferric chloride. Metals corrode much more rapidly in such impure acid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel pipe occurred during installation or storage. The pipe was exposed to a coastal atmosphere, and the rust had been present for a long period. The rust contained enough ferric ions to raise the electrochemical potential of the steel locally. Absorption of chloride ions and moisture from the coastal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: alcoholic ferric chloride solution). Horizontal direction is longitudinal direction of bar Rising Step Load Tests The RSL test method was used to estimate threshold stress intensity for EAC of ASB and NAB in both seawater (SW) and a mixture of SW and ammonia. RSL test protocol is outlined in ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... for the continuing activity of the pit. This process is self-propagating. Most pitting is associated with halide ions. Oxidizing metal ions with chlorides are aggressive pitters, with cupric and ferric ions being extremely aggressive [ 2 ]. Pitting is usually associated with stagnant conditions, and increasing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the chloride ions migrate to the anode area to maintain a charge balance, reacting with the iron ions in a steel environment. The formation of ferric chloride and/or manganic chloride contributes to the steel corrosion. 3xx series stainless steel can be severely and rapidly attacked by MIC. The perforation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... are unlikely to know the details of manufacture, the end application, or the applicable standards of acceptance and rejection. Fig. 11 Contamination by Acid: In this shipment from Europe, a survey prior to loading revealed seepage and a positive result for a chloride spot test. Note that these coils had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...), etchant: 6 s, 100 ml distilled water, 50 ml HCl, 5 g ferric chloride) Design Analysis Due to the constraints of the mechanism and its use in the production system, many design changes were not practical. It is important when studying a problem like this to ensure all possibilities have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., copper-copper sulfate reference electrode. Source: Ref 30 Indicator minerals found as corrosion products in external corrosion scenarios under disbonded polyethylene tape wrap coating on buried pipelines and in laboratory soil box tests Table 3 Indicator minerals found as corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... bars and forgings shall exhibit an aged martensitic structure, fine grained, with no evidence of titanium-carbo-nitride at the grain boundaries. The mounted samples were repolished, and etched with ferric chloride (5 grams FeCl 3 , 50ml HCl and 50 ml of distilled water) in order to reveal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the articles “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ” and “ Liquid-Metal- and Solid-Metal-Induced Embrittlement ” in this Volume and to Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of the ASM Handbook , 2003. Stress-corrosion cracking develops when a susceptible metal or alloy is exposed...