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fatigue scatter

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... stainless steel 0.08 max 1.00 2.00 16–18 10–14 1.75–2.5 … 0.03 0.045 Fig. 9 Back scattered electron (BSE) image and x-ray elemental mapping of a typical dark gray stringer-type inclusion revealing the presence of Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and O Fig. 6 Longitudinal section of the failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the crack. Butterfly wings are evidence of rolling contact fatigue ( Ref 1 ). One macroetched section was subsequently prepared using standard metallographic techniques. The microstructure of the gear, shown in Fig. 11 , consists of tempered martensite with a few scattered manganese sulfide inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of elevated fracture) and “wells,” their topological inverse, were scattered over the flake surfaces. The transition from flake 3 to the overload fracture area consisted of isolated transgranular fracture elements, probably caused by fatigue, surrounded by the grain-boundary facet surface ( Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... characteristic of gray cast iron. Unetched. 64×. Fig. 7 Micrograph of the same area shown in Fig. 6 after etching in nital. Matrix microstructure is bainite with scattered carbides. 64×. Fig. 10 Micrograph showing two parallel cracks at the surface. Corrosion products are evident...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the presence of fatigue cracks at ventilating holes. These acted as stress-raisers during temporary and minor overspeeding, inducing an almost instantaneous brittle failure which wrecked the machine, fortunately without human casualty. Selected References Selected References • Fatigue Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of landings nor the roll mileage was reported, but about 300 days had elapsed between the date of manufacture and the date the wheel was removed from service. The analysis (visual inspection, macrographs, micrographs, electron microprobe) supported the conclusions that the wheel half failed by fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 15B41 steel forged truck connecting rod that failed in service from fatigue initiated at a forging lap. (a) Connecting rod and a detail of the I-beam portion showing the forging lop in one wall. Abstract Abstract A connecting rod (forged from 15B41 steel and heat treated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... static radial, cyclic torsional, and cyclic bending loads. Cracking originated at corrosion pits on the smoothly finished surface and propagated as multiple small corrosion-fatigue cracks from separate nuclei. The originally noncorrosive environment (hydraulic oil) became corrosive in service because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with an unfavorable fatigue behavior. Because of the significant scattering of the results of fatigue tests, the S - N curve must be evaluated statistically ( Fig. 3 ). The mean number of cycles, N 50 , for a failure probability of 50% and a total of m tests on the stress level S a i with single results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of failures. The distribution of failures provides the basis for factoring the test life. The factor is called the scatter factor. The distribution of failures may be derived from past experience from similar aircraft or from the results of design development testing preceding the full-scale fatigue test...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 2. Dingley D. and Baba-Kishi , Use of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction Patterns for the Determination of Crystal Symmetry Elements , Scanning Electron Microsc. , 2 , 1986 , p 386 3. Newbury D. , Joy D. , Echlin P. , Fiori C. , and Goldstein J...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... plotted in Fig. 7 . The nitride zone values were 525 to 780 kp/mm 2 . The wide scatter can be explained by porosity and low adhesive strength. The diffusion zone showed a hardness of 320 to 360 kp/mm 2 at the boundary to the transition layer. It had a depth of 300 µm where hardening was apparent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Examination of the fractured surfaces showed that failure had been preceded by fatigue cracking. The material from which the dish plate was forged was a Ni-Cr-Mo steel in the oil hardened and tempered condition. Fractographic examination of the surface of the cracks showed striation markings indicative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., from fatigue striations manifested by SEM, that the vessel was subject to significant fatigue cracking, which was probably corrosion assisted. From COD measurements at the operating temperature of -130 deg C (-202 deg F), and a finite stress analysis, a fracture mechanics evaluation using BS PD6493...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... mainly by shear. This verified that the primary cause of the failures was fatigue action. A large scatter of striation spacings was observed. Small striations with regular spacings and large striations with dimples were often alternately formed on the fracture surface ( Fig. 8 ), which suggested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... scattered electrons with the secondary electron detector biased negatively. Cracking within zone i) was transgranular with cleavage like features ( Figure 8 ). In the region where the cracking became perpendicular to the axis of the part, recognizable fatigue features, excluding striations, were observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the application of SEM in fractography is discussed. The article covers the failure mechanisms of ductile failure, brittle failure, mixed-mode failure, and fatigue failure. Lastly, image dependence on microscope type and operating parameters is also discussed. fractography microstructure sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... brittle area of fracture, followed in turn by a small amount of slant fracture. In such a case, the initial fracture may have been by fatigue, followed by fast fracture when the crack had reached a critical length, with a final shear lip as the crack completed its passage across the section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... originated from the bottom of this pit. The transition from the SCC to overload mode was rather abrupt without indication of progressive fatigue crack propagation. The pit was examined using secondary electron (SE) and back scattered electron (BSE) imaging modes, respectively to characterise the features...