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fail-passive designs

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract An austenitic stainless steel (type 316/316L stainless steel, schedule 40, 64 mm (2.5 in.) diam and larger) piping network used in the fire-sprinkler system in a large saltwater passenger and car ferry failed by rapid leaking. Operating conditions involved stagnant seawater at ambient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it takes much longer and is therefore more expensive to perform a witnessed investigation compared with a nonwitnessed investigation. History of the Failed Components Obtaining a complete background history of the component of concern is of crucial importance. The background information is critical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion. Poor designs can cause materials highly resistant to uniform corrosion attack to fail catastrophically to local attack. Conditions that may cause an acceleration of corrosion include stagnation and rapid fluid flow. Designs that minimize the possibility of crevice corrosion, erosion-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... legs of a milk storage tank failed in service. The failure occurred near a change in section and involved fracture of the entire cross section. Examination showed a brittle fracture that was preceded by a small fatigue region. Pitting corrosion was evident at the fracture origin. The areas around...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Flux Leakage (MFL) Inspection Visual Examination Recommendations Analysis of Corrosion Products Conclusions Discussion Evaluation of CP System To establish the effectiveness of the CP system of the failed tank and to find out the possible role of stray current in the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with a sodium hypochlorite solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Greater magnification (∼63×) in this same area shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 Conclusion The seal had failed allowing moisture into the cavity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... examination, the rope, strand, and wire diameters should all be measured. Examination should also address the presence or absence of lubricant, corrosion evidence, and gross mechanical damage. Failed wires can exhibit classic cup-and-cone ductile features, flat fatigue features, and various appearances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... amplitude fatigue from bending and torsion of the lead ( Ref 61 ). This can cause the wires to fracture internally or the polymer insulation to fail. Pacing leads must meet competing design demands of being flexible and offering low resistance but also being able to withstand considerable fatigue loading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract This paper describes the metallurgical investigation of a broken spindle used to attach an antenna to the mast of a naval vessel. Visual inspections of both failed and intact fastener assemblies were carried out both on-board ship and in the laboratory followed by metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The working fluid of a hypersonic wind tunnel is freon 14 heated in molten-metal-bath heat exchangers. The coils of the heaters have failed several times from various causes. They have been replaced each time with a stainless steel deemed more appropriate, but they continue to fail...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification: ~13×. (b) Greater magnification (~63×) in this same area shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 Conclusion The seal had failed, allowing moisture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interactions with implants. The considerations for designing internal fixation devices are also described. The article analyzes failed internal fixation devices by explaining the failures of implants and prosthetic devices due to implant deficiencies, mechanical or biomechanical conditions, and degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and bolts. When the ultimate shear stress is relatively low, a pure shear failure may result, but in general, a member subjected to a shear load fails under the action of the resulting combined stresses. In addition to fatigue and overload, other common causes of fastener failures include environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... mechanically fastened joint, the fastener will be subjected to static loading and possibly dynamic fatigue loading. Static loading may be tension, shear, bending, or torsion—either singly or in combination. If the applied load exceeds the capability of a fastener, then it is said to have failed in single-event...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by mercury embrittlement. The discs were part of a flammable gas-cylinder safety device designed to fail in a ductile mode when cylinders experience higher-than-design pressures. The subject discs failed prematurely ( Fig. 2 ) below design pressure in a brittle manner. Fractographic examination using SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is provided in Ref 11 , which describes the failure of three C22000 commercial bronze rupture discs by mercury embrittlement. The discs were part of a flammable-gas cylinder safety device designed to fail in a ductile mode when cylinders experience higher-than-design pressures. The subject discs failed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the scratch load, evident by its larger critical load (approximately 8 g) at which the electrical contact resistance drops, corresponding to failure of the passive film under the scratching load. The passive film on the yttrium-free sample fails under a smaller critical load (approximately 5.5 g). Source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in.), which is far in excess of the design tolerance on flatness for this surface. The fine parallel radial cracks mentioned above are also visible. Fig. 6 Damage observed on the sealing face of a failed wear ring. A metallurgical cross section through this region of surface roughening reveals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with all pertinent details relating to the failure, collecting the available information regarding the design, manufacture, processing, and service histories of the failed component or structure, and reconstructing, insofar as possible, the sequence of events leading to the failure. Collection...