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extrusion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A 230 mm (9 in.) thick casing, fabricated from ASTM 235-55 low-carbon steel, of a 450 Mg (500 ton) extrusion press failed after 27 years of service. Initial visual examination revealed an area that exhibited multiple origins and classic beach marks radiating out approximately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... extrusion of Al-6063 billet material. They were examined to identify critical fatigue failure locations, determine corresponding stresses and strains, and uncover correlations with process parameters, design features, and life cycle data. The fatigue damage models are based on Morrow’s stress and strain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A recurring piston shaft failure problem on the billet-loading tray of an extrusion press was investigated. Two shafts fractured within a period of 10 days. The shaft was machined from normalized EN3 (AISI C1022) steel stock without further treatment. Visual, microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A two-section extension ladder, made from 6061-T6 aluminum alloy extrusions and stampings that were riveted together at each rung location and at the ends of side rails, broke in service after having been used at the sites of several fires by the fire department of a large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., hollow 6061-T651 aluminum alloy extrusion and 26 fiberglass “pockets” that provided the trailing-edge airfoil shape. Visual examination of the fracture surface of the aluminum extrusion indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile overload separation. Examination of the fatigue fracture region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... that produced stresses beyond the yield strength of the alloy. Recommendations included increasing the thickness of the flange and web of the side-rail extrusion. Buckling Extrusions Plastic deformation 6063-T6 UNS A96063 Buckling Several aluminum alloy extension ladders of the same size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... alloy are mostly produced by extrusion. Some material processed this way has been prone to exfoliation corrosion. Extended aging for 24 h at a temperature of 185 deg C (365 deg F) virtually suppresses the tendency for exfoliation corrosion to develop. Also, the use of a sprayed coating, either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., extrusion, straightening, sizing, etc.). These metalworking operations have a two-fold purpose. First, they are obviously designed to produce parts with the desired configuration. Secondly, metalworking can develop a final shape with internal soundness and improved mechanical properties by: Improved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can also degrade during processing (i.e., extrusion or injection molding) if there is moisture in the material. Even at neutral pHs, the elevated temperatures used for polymer molding or extrusion (175 to 250 °C, or 350 to 500 °F, or more) will cause hydrolytic degradation if there is moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... extrusion, the weld zone was almost undetectable. A metallographic specimen taken from near the fracture surface showed that the microstructure of the metal at the inner surface contained acicular ferrite and bainite, indicative of decarburization ( Fig. 1b ) The microstructure of the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... appearance. (b) SEM of the panel surface showing cracked anodized coating. 160x. (c) SEM showing the anodized coating flaking away and corrosion deposit under the coating. 85x. (d) Cross section of corrosion site on panel showing depth of intergranular attack. 265x During processing, the extrusions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent buckling. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Relation of maximum applied load to the section thickness of the flanges and web of the side-rail extrusion. Fig. 4 Relation of distortion ratio to stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a solid-state transformation. bcc, body-centered cubic; fcc, face-centered cubic; T , instantaneous absolute temperature; T M , absolute melting temperature of the material Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Extrusions Synchroton radiation Vacuum chambers Water connections 3003 UNS A93003 6061 UNS A96061 Pitting corrosion Introduction Transition Assemblies Pitting Tests Conclusions and Recommendations References References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in ductility, accompany the flow forming process. Conventionally, tubes are produced by hot extrusion followed by drawing or pilgering. However, it is not practical to hot extrude thin wall tubes beyond a specified limit. Drawing is an easier and less expensive process than extrusion; therefore, a thick...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... been attributed to a number of mechanisms, including cutting ( Ref 45 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 ), fragmentation ( Ref 55 ), elastic and elastic-plastic fracture ( Ref 56 , 57 , 58 ), extrusion ( Ref 59 , 60 ), fatigue ( Ref 61 , 62 ), delamination ( Ref 63 , 64 ), deformation localization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... extrusion effect at lefthand side and bottom. Close-up of scoring in cut (right) shows direction of force. Clearly, distinct pieces of evidence proved that an explosion in the lefthand lavatory compartment caused this crash. Further evidence provided by several components in this compartment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Such crystallographic features have been observed on the fatigue surfaces of many metals and result from nonreversible slip on preferred planes. Slip bands of highly localized deformation are thus generated, resulting in extrusions and intrusions at the surface. These then penetrate along the length of the persistent...