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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Extrusion ratio: 25 Strain rate ( ε′ ), /s  0.01 618 0.002057 17014874 2.49e10 Temperature: 420 °C  1 862 0.00273 2318011 307807041 Fillet radius: 2 mm  12 1262 0.003407 10641 78956201 Bearing length: 8 mm Extrusion ratio: 25 Bearing length ( L ), mm  6 812 0.00228...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... problem on the billet-loading tray of an extrusion press was investigated. Two shafts fractured within a period of 10 days. The shaft was machined from normalized EN3 (AISI C1022) steel stock without further treatment. Visual, microstructural, chemical, and mechanical (hardness and tensile properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract A 230 mm (9 in.) thick casing, fabricated from ASTM 235-55 low-carbon steel, of a 450 Mg (500 ton) extrusion press failed after 27 years of service. Initial visual examination revealed an area that exhibited multiple origins and classic beach marks radiating out approximately 75 mm (3...
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 1 Plan diagram of the main rotor blade, showing the aluminum extrusion spar, the 26 fiberglass trailing-edge pockets, the hub and endcap fittings, and the approximate location of the separation. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Schematic of extrusion press casing. Cross-sectional view More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 EPMA analysis of inclusion stringers in failed extrusion press. (a) SEM micrograph of metallographic section near bleed hole. Note large inclusions. 490x. (b) EDX dot map of manganese. (c) EDX dot mop of sulfur More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent buckling. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Relation of maximum applied load to the section thickness of the flanges and web of the side-rail extrusion. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Cut in upper rim of piece of waste towel receptacle has extrusion effect at lefthand side and bottom. Close-up of scoring in cut (right) shows direction of force. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Defect on as-received extrusion. Note appearance of lamination. ×100. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 Extrusion loading cycles More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 Failed dies collected from local extrusion industry More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 9 Variation of die life cycles (number of billets extruded) with extrusion ratio ( R ) based on failure data of 50 dies collected from extrusion industry. Die life corresponding to R = 25 is shown by dashed line More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A two-section extension ladder, made from 6061-T6 aluminum alloy extrusions and stampings that were riveted together at each rung location and at the ends of side rails, broke in service after having been used at the sites of several fires by the fire department of a large city...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the basis of 185 blade revolutions per minute in level cruise flight and either one or four load cycles per blade revolution Fig. 9 SEM micrograph of the fracture surface of the crack at a location close to the point at which the crack penetrated the wall of the hollow extrusion, showing uniformly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... beyond the yield strength of the alloy. Recommendations included increasing the thickness of the flange and web of the side-rail extrusion. Buckling Extrusions Plastic deformation 6063-T6 UNS A96063 Buckling Several aluminum alloy extension ladders of the same size and type collapsed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are mostly produced by extrusion. Some material processed this way has been prone to exfoliation corrosion. Extended aging for 24 h at a temperature of 185 deg C (365 deg F) virtually suppresses the tendency for exfoliation corrosion to develop. Also, the use of a sprayed coating, either of aluminum or Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Suggested troubleshooting ideas for process defects encountered during extrusion Table 1 Suggested troubleshooting ideas for process defects encountered during extrusion Process defect Cause Troubleshooting step Low output Many potential causes Is the bulk density too low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... It also reviews plastic processing operations, including extrusion, injection molding, and thermoforming, and addresses related considerations such as melt viscosity and melt strength, crystallization, orientation, die swell, melt fracture, shrinkage, molded-in stress, and polymer degradation...
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 9 SEM micrograph of the fracture surface of the crack at a location close to the point at which the crack penetrated the wall of the hollow extrusion, showing uniformly spaced fatigue striations. 3700×. More