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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are criticized for their lack of ability to predict real-life performance ( Ref 10 ). In spite of this, flammability tests continue to be used to measure and describe the response of materials or systems to heat or flame exposure under laboratory conditions. The reader should note that standard test methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the external surface of the cylinder, with multiple origin fatigue fracture appearing to be the dominant fracture mechanism. Metallurgical examination indicated that the nitrided layer was not as deep as it was supposed to be and had worn away on the outer surface of the sleeve, exposing the soft matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Various methods can be employed to protect belowground pipelines from high-voltage lightning damage. Three devices/methods for protecting insulated joints include 1) standard lightning arresters, 2) grounding cells with zinc anodes, and 3) isolation surge protectors (ISP)s [ 2 ]. The appropriate voltage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of main shaft are to be induction-quenched (journals A, C, D, and E, marked in Figs. 1 , 2 ) to obtain the surface hardness of HRC56-62. The failed sleeve was made of 38CrMoAl steel. The internal and external surfaces were to have been nitrided to a depth of at least. Fig. 1 Failed assemble...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the longitudinal displacement of the inner (concentric) pipe. Fractography, microstructural, microhardness, and chemical analyses revealed that the concentric pipe failed due to fatigue. Fatigue cracks initiated along longitudinal welds where wire spacers attach to the external surface of the pipe. The effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... phases and non-metallic inclusions were evaluated on metallographic cross-sections (sections “c1” and “c2”) of the plate after etching with Murakami solution. The concentration of inclusions was estimated referring to standard ASTM E45-87, method A, reference II. The mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrochemical tests. Typically, a variety of materials are selected for evaluation. A standard, such as carbon steel, may be used to verify the corrosiveness of the environment. Multiple samples of the same material should be tested to verify reproducibility. Sources for corrosion test methods are ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Chemical Composition The chemical composition of the failed cylinder head material was determined by a spectrographic chemical analysis method. The results are shown in Table 2 . The cylinder head alloy conformed to the standard (of AlSi8Cu3) except for higher silicon content [ 1 ]. This element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... specimen ( Fig. 4 ). This method is described in standards such as ISO 877-3 ( Ref 13 ) and ASTM G90 ( Ref 14 ). Standard models use 10 mirrors that concentrate solar radiation onto the test area. This type of device can deposit approximately five to eight times more solar radiation compared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The leakage occurred at 1.5 m from the pipe end (girth weld). The pipe was both externally and internally coated. The pipe diameter ( D ) to wall thickness ( t ) ratio for this pipe is 120:1. Failure Analysis Nondestructive Testing The leaking pipe on-site is shown in Fig. 1 . The contractor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... engineering design process engineering failure failure analysis THE AIM OF THIS ARTICLE is to assist the failure analyst in broadening the initial scope of the investigation of a physical engineering failure in order to identify the root cause of the problem. Analysis methods for determining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Number A027288 , ( 1989 ) 3. Boeing Standard Preventive Maintenance procedures , pt. 1 20-60-00, ( 1994 ) 4. Canadian Specification 31-GP-103M , “Conversion Coating, Heavy Phosphate For Iron And Steel.” , ( 1989 ) 5. ASTM-D-3359 , Standard Test Methods for measuring Adhesion by Tape Test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., test methods, temperature, and the nature of the applied stresses. In contrast, physical properties are those typically measured by methods not requiring the application of an external mechanical force (or load). Typical examples of physical properties are density, magnetic properties (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As described previously, certain physical variables are known to be modeled well by the standard distributional forms. If a distribution can be assumed for a given variable, for example, the Weibull to model fracture toughness, then the distribution can be fit to data using point estimation. The method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... if the product failed by reaching its end of life, as most products have a relatively finite service life. Multiple standards and methods exist that can be used to determine the useful service life of a product, and manufacturers that perform this testing and analysis will consequentially label their product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of a considerable number of the curved tubes at IK boxes was observed. Then, the failed tubes together with one from unfailed tubes, away from IK boxes, were removed for failure analysis using different non destructive and destructive test methods ( 1 ). Investigation On site inspection has shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is performed on a standard good material for comparison. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method in which the weight of the sample is monitored as the sample is progressively heated. The components of a polymer decompose at different temperatures, creating a series of weight-loss steps in the TGA...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in a reduction in corrosion resistance, copper containing alloys being particularly poor in this respect. It may be recalled that this propensity led to the development of the material known as “Alclad” whereby the higher strength Duralumin type alloy was clad on the external surfaces with pure aluminium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) mechanical test standards for plastics ASTM International standard ISO standard Topic area of standard Specimen preparation D618 291 Methods of specimen conditioning D955 294-4 Measuring shrinkage from mold dimensions of molded...