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external optical inspection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-level commentary on the basic steps of DA. An ECDA is the process wherein an operator analyzes data to determine which locations may be susceptible to external corrosion, carries out indirect inspections to determine specific dig locations, and performs direct examinations to assess pipe integrity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and reached the critical crack size. Apparently, the pit had been missed during optical inspection. Difficulties are encountered in inspecting and finding microscopic flaws and pitting on the inner painted surfaces. Emphasis should be placed on adequate surface finishing and inspection of the machined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... procedure, both the external and internal weld beads exhibited a dendritic microstructure. Optical microscopic examination of representative failed specimens of the diffuser intake subassembly indicated cracks near the weld interface with the type 310 stainless steel flange ( Fig. 6 ). Furthermore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... initiated at an overload fracture near the root of the weld and was followed by mode III fatigue crack propagation (tearing) around the periphery of the weld. The initial overload fracture was caused by a high external load, which produced a concentrated stress and fracture at the weld root. The subsequent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L X46 line...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was observed. Then, the failed tubes together with one from unfailed tubes, away from IK boxes, were removed for failure analysis using different non destructive and destructive test methods ( 1 ). On site inspection has shown that the failed water wall tubes were all located at the IK boxes of the long...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A failed crosshead of an industrial compressor was examined using optical and SEM. The crosshead was an ASTM A148 grade 105-85 steel casting. On the basis of the observations reported and available background information, it was concluded that the failure began...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A failed crosshead of an industrial compressor was examined using optical and scanning electron microscope. The crosshead was an ASTM A148 grade 105-85 steel casting. On the basis of the observations reported and available background information, it was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Leading to Failure Pertinent Specifications Sample Selection Examination of the parts that had been inspected by magnetic-particle testing showed several tiny radial cracks at random locations, but primarily confined to the base edge and fillet radius zones ( Fig. 1 ). Surface Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... through the longitudinal displacement of the inner (concentric) pipe. Fractography, microstructural, microhardness, and chemical analyses revealed that the concentric pipe failed due to fatigue. Fatigue cracks initiated along longitudinal welds where wire spacers attach to the external surface of the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A masonry type drill bit, designed for impact drilling in rock, fractured after a short time in service. Samples of the failed bit were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, quantitative metallography, and chemical analysis. The composition was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A back wall riser tube in a high pressure boiler failed, interrupting operations in a cogeneration plant. The failure occurred in a tube facing the furnace, causing eight ruptured openings over a 1.8 m section. The investigation consisted of an on-site visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... these features. Stereomicroscope inspection at a magnification of 30× revealed whisker like projections within the defects, typical of dendrites. The defects labeled X and Y were studied at higher magnification in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several groupings of shallow pits were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stress between the contact and the tab. The fracture surface was further inspected using an optical stereomicroscope. The fracture surface showed no evidence of ductility, as would be evident in the form of stress whitening or permanent deformation. An oily residue was evident covering the crack surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A failed SAE-192 carbon steel tube from a 6.2-MPa (900-psig), 200-Mg/h (180-ton/h) capacity refinery boiler was analyzed to determine its failure mode. Optical and SEM examination results were combined with knowledge of the boiler operating conditions to conclude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or external inspections and basis for current inspection schedules. Codes and standards used in the United States that could impact or be useful to a failure investigation include: Construction codes: ASME Section I—Power Boilers ASME Section VIII—Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME Section V...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the United States, with a combined generating capacity of 106,905 MWe. In 1990, they generated 20.6% of the nation's electrical energy demand. 1 Component failures occur from time to time in these plants, and the rigorous in-service inspection procedures to which the plant components are subjected often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., structure, properties, and performance of materials. It discusses methodologies for conducting aircraft investigations and inspections and emphasizes cases where metallurgical or materials contributions were causal to an accident event. The article highlights how the failure of a component or system can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the failure analyst should be aware of the capabilities and limitations of the various NDE techniques employed, as well as alternative techniques. Probability of Detection Visual Examination and Optical Scanning Magnetic-Particle Inspection Liquid Penetrant Inspection Eddy-Current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... being of a ductile or brittle nature. Total brittle fracture of a part is most undesirable because it is unpredictable and often has catastrophic results. Periodic inspection of a part that is susceptible to brittle fracture is often of little purpose. It is preferable for fracture of a component...