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explicit numerical solution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the stress amplitude, σ a , in the loading cycle. Fig. 1 Extrusion loading cycles So far, numerous studies have been performed for the improvement of tool fatigue life. Tong et al. [ 4 ] have used S-N approach and finite element analysis for the estimation of forging die fatigue life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of Metals under Repeated Alterations of Stress” ( Ref 7 ). Since the early 1900s, countless publications and research activities have focused on understanding and estimating fatigue life in many different materials and structures across numerous industries. As discussed in Ref 8 , useful methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) requested that the U.S. Army Research Laboratory — Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (ARL) perform a metallurgical investigation of numerous fatigue tested main rotor spindle tie rods from an Army utility helicopter. These components are an integral part of the main rotor hub assembly, and all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... must fully consider the interplay among design, fabrication, material properties, environment, and service conditions. Once the failure is accurately classified, corrective action and recommendations can be made. Appropriate solutions can involve: Redesign Change in materials selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...% nital solution works well. These microstructural changes may include the formation of dark etching regions ( Ref 49 – 59 ), white etching bands ( Ref 30 , 33 , 60 , 61 ), white etching areas ( Ref 50 , 51 , 62 – 68 ), white etching cracks ( Ref 69 – 83 ), and microcrystallographic texture ( Ref 13...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). This result was to be expected, but later investigations, particularly that presented in Ref 6 , showed that the conjoint action of fretting and fatigue, which is the usual case in practice, was much more dangerous, producing strength-reduction factors of 2 to 5 and even greater. Since the 1950s, numerous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... into operation. Under such circumstances, heat exchangers should be adequately protected from the corrosion that may occur before startup. Wet lay-up using a suitably buffered or inhibited solution can be used to retard corrosion. Another method is to keep the heat exchanger dry and, if necessary, fill...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4