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eutectic solidification

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., 1195 to 1215°F) compared to that of the 2024-T3 core alloy (500 to 640°C, 935 to 1180°F). Figure 5 reveals the porosity present in the re-cast layer, probably caused by hydrogen evolution during solidification. Figures 6 and 7 exhibit abnormal localized rosettes (evidence of eutectic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... filling and solidification. However, both Schenider 6 and Smith 7 found no relation between the gating design and the occurrence of metal waves. The effect of machine operating parameters on baking have not been investigated in any great detail. Carrol 8 has recommended using as low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... In order to prevent a repetition, the use of hypoeutectic or eutectic iron, slower cooling of the casting, inoculation of the melt with finely powdered ferrosilicon, and possibly rounding-off the edges or machining of the surfaces are recommended. Galling Materials selection Pumps Gray iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-and-tempered microstructure contained solidification shrinkage, inherently poor ductility, and type II Mn-S inclusions that are known to reduce ductility. The macro and microscale fracture features confirmed that the casting was likely in low-temperature service at the time of failure. The composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., after etching the fracture surface itself [ 4 ], what appeared to be dendritic solidification structures revealed themselves on some of the grain boundary facets ( Figs. 10 – 12 ). However, dendrite arm spacing does not fit this interpretation [ 1 ]. In the case at hand, the spacing is much too narrow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio compared with the overload fracture area. The liquid in the interdendritic and grain boundary regions becomes silicon enriched during solidification, and hot tears form in these regions by the stresses generated by solidification shrinkage. The overload fracture also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... phosphorus content can cause the formation of steadite, a ternary eutectic consisting of ferrite (containing some phosphorus in solution) and iron phosphide (Fe 3 P). This undesirable, hard, brittle constituent degrades the strength of the material. Tensile specimens prepared from this same region have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... graphite in a purely pearlitic matrix ( fig. 2 ) in the thicker cross sections. In the thinner cross sections, the graphite had precipitated to a large extent in a fine-leafed structure by supercooled solidification (granular graphite), and the matrix was predominantly ferritic in these regions ( fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...× The microstructure of the scale layer is shown in Fig. 6 . The oxidation has apparently proceeded initially on the austenite grain boundaries. The first voids formed on the grain boundaries ( Fig. 7 ). These observations suggest melting as a possible cause of the failure, but no traces of a eutectic structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Cold tearing C 220: Hot cracking and tearing C 221 (a) Irregularly shaped discontinuities in areas susceptible to tension; oxidized fracture surface showing dendritic pattern Hot tearing C 222 (a) Rupture after complete solidification, either during cooling or heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... iron grades are eutectic, or near eutectic alloys, where graphite and the metallic matrix grow cooperatively on solidification. Gray Iron Composition and Microstructure Carbon Equivalent and Carbon Saturation Carbon equivalent (CE) is a simplified method of evaluating the effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and the ferritic microstructure caused thereby are a consequence of delayed solidification due to undercooling. The ferrite formation may have been further accelerated by the annealing. This structure showed low strength that had a particular damaging effect on the bottom of the groove at high operating stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...×. It is clearly evident from Fig. 5 that the carbide segregations have occurred preferentially along grain boundary contours. The massive carbide network depicted in Fig. 5 reveals a skeleton-like morphology, presumably indicative of its eutectic origin, i.e., genesis at the ingot solidification stage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals solidification, causing a porous structure in the interior of the casting. The major casting imperfections that may affect induction-hardened workpieces are blowholes or gas holes, which may appear as subsurface voids. These voids can cause nonuniform heating and hot spots. Inclusions may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at oxide crack sites ( Ref 20 ). The reduced species, H 2 S, is more corrosive than the oxidized species, SO 2 . Gaseous reactions or molten phases, such as low-melting-point metal-sulfides eutectics, may cause sulfidation. Sulfidation of nickel results in the formation of eutectic Ni 3 S 2 that has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of solders Composition Melting point Eutectic solder? °C °F Lead-containing solders Sn63-Pb37 183 361 Yes Sn62-Pb36-Ag2 179 354 Yes Sn5-Pb95 308–312 586–594 No Lead-free solders Sn96.5-Ag3.0-Cu0.5 (SAC305) 217–220 423–428 No Sn95.5-Ag4.0-Cu0.5 (SAC405) 217...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the fatigue cracks were initiated by a wide variety of causes. In some of the examples, more than one cause contributed to failure. Failures Caused by Material Defects Seams frequently contribute to spring failures, usually by initiating fatigue cracks. Pipe solidification, inclusions, and internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosive than the oxidized species, SO 2 . Gaseous reactions and molten phases, such as low-melting-point metal-sulfides eutectics, can cause sulfidation. Sulfidation of nickel results in the formation of eutectic Ni 3 S 2 , which has a melting point of 635 °C (1175 °F), with sulfur solubility of 0.005...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... also be associated with precipitation of inclusions during initial solidification or after partial solution and reprecipitation after annealing at a high temperature (where MnS precipitates, nitrides, and carbides form in the grain boundaries). These fracture mechanisms are more important in cases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... micrograph of the blade material, showing the breakdown of the eutectic gamma prime (5) and the spreading of the coarse gamma prime. Smaller particles of fine aging gamma prime (4), which would appear between the coarse gamma prime, are completely dissolved (indicated by the arrow). (b) SEM micrograph...