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eutectic reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of low melting point eutectics or corrosion; show a similar appearance when investigated on a macroscopic scale. Conductors (devices) Plate metal Turbogenerators Copper Hydrogen damage and embrittlement This article originally appeared in the issue of “Der Maschinenschaden” for December...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... not specified; for information only Fig. 1 General view of sprocket drive wheel, showing extensive cracking around each bolt hole. −0.21×. Fig. 2 Section showing comparatively coarse eutectic structure and (dark) platelike constituent. Etched in 20% sulfuric acid at 70 °C (160 °F). 152.5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at oxide crack sites ( Ref 20 ). The reduced species, H 2 S, is more corrosive than the oxidized species, SO 2 . Gaseous reactions or molten phases, such as low-melting-point metal-sulfides eutectics, may cause sulfidation. Sulfidation of nickel results in the formation of eutectic Ni 3 S 2 that has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature gradient, the pertinent eutectic temperature of the penetrating liquid determines its maximum liquid penetration depth. Dissolution The simplest case of pure dissolution is represented by the reaction S 1 + L 1 → L 2 , where L 2 is a solution L 1 + S 1 , S 1 having a continuous surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... promote local corrosion. Microscopical examination of sections cut from pitted regions of liners affected by cavitation damage show that the relatively mechanically weak phosphide eutectic is often left proud, in the pits. The examination of several pits which developed in the liner shown in Figure 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...× The microstructure of the scale layer is shown in Fig. 6 . The oxidation has apparently proceeded initially on the austenite grain boundaries. The first voids formed on the grain boundaries ( Fig. 7 ). These observations suggest melting as a possible cause of the failure, but no traces of a eutectic structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosive than the oxidized species, SO 2 . Gaseous reactions and molten phases, such as low-melting-point metal-sulfides eutectics, can cause sulfidation. Sulfidation of nickel results in the formation of eutectic Ni 3 S 2 , which has a melting point of 635 °C (1175 °F), with sulfur solubility of 0.005...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is such that decarburization is not prevented during austenitizing. Castings : Decarburization is a normal product found on the surface of ferrous castings. Decarburization is a particular problem for investment castings with close finished tolerances, due to the metal/mold interface reaction. For this reason, most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (cast steel) Flow marks, crow’s feet D 134 Casting surface entirely pitted or pock-marked Orange peel, metal mold reaction, alligator skin D 135 Grooves and roughness in the vicinity of re-entrant angles on die castings Soldering, die erosion D 140 Depressions in the casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of solders Composition Melting point Eutectic solder? °C °F Lead-containing solders Sn63-Pb37 183 361 Yes Sn62-Pb36-Ag2 179 354 Yes Sn5-Pb95 308–312 586–594 No Lead-free solders Sn96.5-Ag3.0-Cu0.5 (SAC305) 217–220 423–428 No Sn95.5-Ag4.0-Cu0.5 (SAC405) 217...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Casting alloys Coal gasification Co-29Cr-19Fe High-temperature corrosion and oxidation In some coal gasification processes [ 1 ], the reactor burner nozzle is a crucial component. Through it coal slurry and oxygen are injected into the reaction chamber where they react exothermically producing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... provides useful information pertaining to the extent of the minor phase changes that might have occurred during service. Similar techniques are employed to identify the principal phases present within the corrosive deposits, e.g., NiCr 2 O 4 , Na 2 SO 4 , Co 3 O 4 , etc., and these reaction products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... partial pressure of SO 3 . It is caused by low melting eutectic compounds resulting from the combination of sodium sulfate and some of the alloy constituents such as nickel (metal sulfates NiSO 4 or Na 2 SO 4 ) [ 1 ]. This mixture of sulfates destroys the oxide scale and its protective quality. It seems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction, alligator skin D 135 Grooves and roughness in the vicinity of re-entrant angles on die castings Soldering, die erosion D 140: Depressions in the casting surface D 141 Casting surface depressions in the vicinity of a hot spot Sink marks, draw or suck-in D 142 Small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... sections in this article. Lastly, it is common for titanium brazed joints to have a composite structure consisting of intermetallics, solid solutions, and eutectic constituents. Phase compositions and the volume of different phases depend on brazing temperature, holding time, cooling rate, width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-centered cubic (bcc) structure, deformation generally is strain-rate sensitive. Thus, their reaction to cavitation is always a competition between flow and fracture. When pure iron is subjected to cavitation, it exhibits both brittle and ductile failure mechanisms. For hexagonal close-packed (hcp...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by a displacement reaction, and cracking occurs by LME if there are surface residual tensile stresses. Very fine cracks can be obscured by mercury films, but evaporating the mercury under vacuum at ~150 °C (using appropriate precautions to prevent mercury vapour escaping into the atmosphere) allows fine cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that occurs in the second and third stages. Hydrogen attack is a decarburization reaction. If the attack is confined to the surface, it is known as surface attack. If the attack occurs internally, the resultant product—that is, methane—is unable to escape, forms bubbles, and leads to permanent internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reduction is small, mechanical properties, chiefly toughness and ductility, are affected. However, it should also be noted that overheating may occur during the solution anneal of age hardening alloy systems. In this case, grain boundary porosity by melting of the eutectic constituent occurs and can result...