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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... stress-assisted corrosion was eliminated as a cause of failure. Field metallographic techniques were developed, using a repeated polish-and-etch technique, to examine the remainder of the piping. A portable grinding tool was used to prepare the surface, followed by swab etching. A total of 72...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showed a brittle appearance at the fractures. Micrograph examination of an etched section disclosed several small cracks. Fracture of the parts may have occurred through similar cracks. Also observed was a burned layer approximately 0.075 mm (0.003 in.) deep on the latch surface, and hardness at a depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and 10x etched with 2% chromic acid plus HCl views) supported the conclusions that failure was by fatigue from multiple origins caused by welding defects. Ultimate failure was by tensile overload of the sections partly separated by the fatigue cracks. Recommendations included correct fit-up of the case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... perpendicular to the principal tensile stress and of microcracks resulting from their linkage. These features are revealed by repeated polishing and etching techniques, described elsewhere ( 1 ). The damage is mainly concentrated within the inner one third of the wall thickness. Damage may be classified...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inclusions or second-phase particles. In such cases, chemical analysis may be made using specialized techniques. A number of analytical tools are available for such evaluations and may be used by the failure analyst. The more common ones, which are described briefly in this section, are x-ray analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Baretzky B. , Baker S.P. , and Mittemeijer E.J. , in Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 32 , 2001 , p 1201 – 1209 10.1007/s11661-001-0129-3 11. Petzow G. , Metallographic Etching , 2nd ed. , ASM International , 1999 12. Taeffner U. , Hoffmann M.J...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... It is noteworthy that the replication techniques produced accurate estimates of the crack length. The replica from the etched surface revealed the microstructural details of the cracking ( Figures 4 , 5 , and 6 ). At the lower magnifications, the jagged irregular nature of the crack path could be clearly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., it is a very useful technique when no other means of examination are possible. Fig. 44 Light micrographs comparing images made with (a) a replica, using DIC illumination, and (b) a direct micrograph, using bright-field illumination, of a heavily nitrided AISI 4150 chuck jaw etched with nital. Note...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... or nickel oxide before it could he detected; time and budget constraints precluded additional work such as X-ray diffraction or other techniques that might have identified oxides. Likewise, more detailed analyses of the grainboundary and matrix deposits were not pursue Most Probable Cause Remedial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Greco A. , Stadler K. , Vegter E. , and Xiao X. , Using Advanced Tomography Techniques to Investigate the Development of White Etching Cracks in a Prematurely Failed Field Bearing , Tribol. Int. , Vol 116 , 2017 , p 362 – 370 10.1016/j.triboint.2017.07.028 73. Ooi S.W...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the grinding papers wore out often and frequent change was necessary. The surface was then rough polished using 15-, 6-, and 1-micrometre diamond, respectively, on PSA-backed Microcloth with a small amount of lubricant. Final polishing of the titanium was done in two steps using a etch-polish technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... seam. The cracks only appeared where the originally deposited bead was remelted in the regions of overlap. Given the construction and welding technique used, it would have been preferable to make the nipples of a steel lower in sulfur content. However, by taking advantage of all the potential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... spalling at one of the 3.2-mm ( 1 8 -in.) diam holes made by EDM. The surface was etched with 10% aqueous nitric acid to bring out the influence of the EDM operation at the spall. 2.5× Fig. 8 Microstructures associated with the spalled hole ( Fig. 7 ) caused by improper EDM technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... contained less than 1% Na on the surface. After 15 min of argon ion etching, depth profiling showed high concentrations of sodium were still evident, indicating that the sodium was present before the chromate conversion treatment was performed. A review of the manufacturing procedures showed that sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sections were prepared in accordance with standard metallographic techniques. They were examined unetched and etched at magnifications up to 1000×. Gear tooth MLR-28 was examined at the suspected fracture origin and along the pitch face. In the unetched condition, the fracture surface appeared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and operator experience. This information, plus information from subsequent examinations and from laboratory analyses of specimens, should permit accurate determination of how and why the failure occurred. Techniques used during a preliminary examination should not affect any subsequent examinations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the cracks had started from the outside surface of the tube. Electrolytic etching further showed that they had propagated mainly across the grains. It was concluded that this was a typical case of transcrystalline stress corrosion. Chlorides Heating coils X10CrNiMoTi 18 12 Transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Foreign inclusion in an annealed piece of chromium steel with approx. 1% C and 1.5% Cr. Longitudinal section. Etch Picral 100× Fig. 2 Foreign inclusion in an annealed piece of chromium steel with approx. 1% C and 1.5% Cr. Longitudinal section. Etch Picral 500× Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 2 Representative photomicrographs of the microstructure of the cooler tube. The structure consists of equiaxed alpha grains with annealing twins. Etched in potassium dichromate. (a) 91×. (b) 364× Fig. 3 Photomicrographic montage of the longitudinal crack. The inside diameter...