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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the H-4 and M-11 TMI-2 boat specimens were also heated to 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100°C for 10, 30 and 100 minutes. It was believed that the H-4 and M-11 locations experienced only low temperatures. These control specimens were polished, etched and compared to the TMI-2 boat specimens. Specimens were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and roller) were revealed to be uniformly electrolytically etched by visual examination. The action similar to anodic etching was believed to have occurred as a result of stray currents in the electric motor (not properly grounded) and the presence of an electrolyte (moisture) between the cup and roller...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... chemically milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of 455 to 595 deg C (850 to 1100 deg F). Examination included visual inspection, macrograph of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 1.85x, micrographs of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 100x/600x, normal microstructure of as-cast standard austenitic manganese...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at temperatures of 80 to 90 deg C (176 to 194 deg F). The fracture was unusual in that it was of a fibrous nature, the fibers-which were orientated radially-were readily detachable. The surface of the spindle adjacent to the fracture had an etched appearance and the mode of cracking in this region suggested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was revealed after etching with 1% nital. The presence of a crack, with typical oxides found in seams at its root, was disclosed by an unetched section through the shaft in an area unaffected by induction heating. The etched samples revealed similar decarburization as was noted on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... etching with 5% nital the polished surface exhibited a pronounced, easily-visible, fibrous structure. Microscopic examination revealed that this etch pattern was produced by marked segregation bands. The very unfavorable structure for a high speed steel tool of these dimensions and subject...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A welded ferritic stainless steel heat exchanger cracked prior to service. The welding filler metal was identified as an austenitic stainless steel and the joining method as gas tungsten arc welding. Investigation (visual inspection, SEM images, 5.9x images, and 8.9x/119x images etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A steel socket pipe conduit NW 150 cracked open during pressure testing next to the weld seam almost along the entire circumference. The crack occurred in part in the penetration notch and in part immediately adjacent to it. While the uncracked pipe showed the light etch shading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the center of the piston-pin-bushing bore. The fracture was nucleated at an electroetched numeral 5 on one of the flange surfaces. A notch, caused by arc erosion during electroetching, was revealed by metallographic examination of a polished-and-etched section through the fracture origin. A remelted zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Fig. 1 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive a-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a sectioned and oxalic acid etched sample. The grain size was found to exceed the ASTM standard. No indications of sensitization were observed during testing with practice A of ASTM A 262. Definitive evidence of contaminants to support SCC as the failure mechanism was not disclosed during analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during investigation. Etch pits were revealed by the cleaned surface which were never observed on properly phosphated coating. It was interpreted that the spring had been subjected to an abnormal acid attack in pickling or phosphating which had resulted in considerable absorption of hydrogen by the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., oriented about normal to the outside surface, and had a dark oxidized appearance. The cracking was found to be predominantly intergranular. Distinct shiny bands that etched slower than the remainder of the sample at the top of each individual weld bead were revealed by microscopic examination. These bands...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... nearly identical conditions, drawing water from an open tank through a standpipe, had no observable failures. Etched micrographs 100x of samples taken from the impellers showed clean, pockmarked, severely eroded surfaces, characteristic of cavitation damage. Investigation also revealed that considerable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to an expensive gear mechanism. The rotor was subjected to severe chatter, which was an abnormal condition resulting from a series of continuous small overloads occurring at a frequency of around three per second. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, and hot acid etch images) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during melting. Microscopic examination of polished, etched section through the fractured surface verified intergranular separation and breakdown of grain facets. The absence of any reduction of thickness on the bracket assembly at the point of fracture, along with evidence of intense heat at this point...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported the conclusion...