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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thermal treatments between 800 and 1100 deg C for periods of 1 to 100 min. Microstructural parameters in the control specimens and in those from TMI-2 were quantified. Selective etchants were used to better discriminate desired microstructural features, particularly in the cladding. This report...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... G. Cross sections, etchant: picral. 200 × Fig. 2 Cross sections, etchant: picral. 200 × Core structure of the wires. S1. Fig. 3 Cross sections, etchant: picral. 200 × Core structure of the wires. S2. The wires of shipment G which were not crack sensitive are accordingly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Views of the tube specimens. 1 ×. Thread-portions. Fig. 3 Longitudinal section s—s in Fig. 2 through a hard spot. Etchant: Nital. 10 × Fig. 4 Microstructure in the weldseam, longitudinal section. Etchant: Nital. 500 ×. Normal location. Fig. 5 Microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... In contrast, the chrome steel pipe on the other side next to the welding seam was only slightly corroded over a short distance which approximately corresponded to the heat-affected region. Fig. 1 Pipe specimen with leaky weld. 1 × Fig. 2 Longitudinal section through the weld. Etchant: Nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.8–1.5 1.3 1.1 a Iron content should not exceed the nickel content Fig. 3 Typical microstructure in bulk material containing mostly alpha phase ( a ) 100× and ( b ) 500×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid Fig. 4 Selectively attacked region near the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition AMS 6490 (M50) alloy steel UNS T11350 Introduction and Background Laboratory Analysis Summary of Key Findings Conclusion Discussion References References 1. ASTM E407-07 Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys, Etchant 74 2. ASTM A892-09 Standard Guide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 The 10-10 Etchant is customized for the CuMgAl 2 , eutectic phase in 2024. This two-step etchant can show general microstructural features without destroying the subtle features associated with local eutectic melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the tooth, to approximately 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) on the other side. Fig. 10 Macroetched cross section through a gear tooth showing the geometry and thickness of the hardened case. Note the irregular case depth. Nital etchant, 1.86× One macroetched section was subsequently prepared using standard...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or bainite indicates heating of the metal followed by rapid cooling. Fig. 7 Stereo light photomicrograph of the mounted cross section (Mount A) that was removed from the feature (4% Nital Etchant); hardness location D is indicated in the figure Fig. 8 Light photomicrograph showing the mirror...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... exhibited the same fracture features. Fig. 3 SEM photographs typical of the fracture surfaces. (a) Crack fracture surface. Nital etchant, 270.6×. (b) Lab fracture surface, Nital etchant, 630×. Sections were cut from the expansion joint and prepared for metallographic examination by grinding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a fracture path that was definitely intergranular. Initial metallographic examination with etchants typically used for copper-base alloys revealed little difference between the two tubes. When an etchant with a small amount of silver nitrate added to the nitric acid was used, the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 13 Microstructure of the tube material away from the weld to the header. Etchant: 10% oxalic acid (electrolytic). Magnification: ×200 Cracks Adjacent to Header In the as-polished longitudinal section, there was one transverse crack near the toe of the weld and numerous cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with graphite nodules. Both tubes contained dense, uniform, internal scale approximately 76 µm (0.003 in.) thick. Fig. 3 Microstructure in Tube 3 at the rupture. The creep voids have linked up to form a crack. Nital etchant. (a) 177×. (b) 308×. Fig. 4 Microstructure in the remote rings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...-treatment. Fig. 2 Structure after heat-treatment, etchant: Picral. 100× References References 1. Houdremont E. , Stahl u. Eisen 72 ( 1952 ) 1536/1540 . 2. Naumann Vgl. a. F. K. , Spies F. , Prakt. Metallographie 8 ( 1971 ) 667/674 . Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to the right side of the picture is a broad segregation band. Here the zone-wise less powerful attack of the etchant is the result of the accumulation of alloying elements as well as of carbides in the segregation bands. The increased concentration of alloying elements makes these bands vulnerable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a fractured compression spring. Intergranular features are suggested and a plating layer is apparent on the quench crack surface. 2% Nital Etchant (Original Magnification 100 ×) Axle bars were manufactured from 38 mm square Grade 1045 plain carbon steel. The bars were induction hardened to 45 to 50 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as it often appears in brass after heavier cold deformation. Fig. 6 Course of crack in microstructure; etchant: copper ammonium chloride ammonium hydroxide. 100× Therefore a test was conducted according to DIN 1785 to check for sensitivity to stress cracking. This consists in immersing a brass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) in the as-rolled stock. Specimen etched with 4% picral, followed by 2% nital Fig. 37 (a) Abusive grinding caused this 50 mm (2 in.) diameter AISI O1 tool steel die to crack (left, after dye-penetrant inspection). (b) Typical appearance of the cracks (etchant has bled out of the crack, producing a stain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Fig. 3 Cross section through the eye showing cracking through the aligned stringer inclusions. Unetched. 2× Fig. 4 High-magnification view of the eye fracture surface showing fracture through the sulfide inclusions and a banded microstructure. 2% nital etchant. 28× It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... “chevron” marking or “herring-bone” pattern, characteristics of brittle fracture, radiating from two tiny fatigue cracks (arrows). Magnification 1.09 times. Fig. 7 Decarburization on the surface of spring leg. Etchant, 2 pct Nital. Magnification 82 times. Selected References Selected...