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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The accident at Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 on 28 March 1979 was the worst nuclear accident in US history. By Jan 1990, it was possible to electrochemically machine coupons from the lower head using a specially designed tool. The specimens contained the ER308L stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... sections of equally as many rings of two “bad” shipments were examinated. In the following these are designated as S1 and S2. Twenty-seven sections of a “good shipment are designated as G. Four rings of each shipment were analyzed as to their chemical composition. The analyses showed in the average...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was confined to a 0.25-in. (6.4-mm) radii around the affected rivets. The repair process involved removal of the locally-affected material and addition of a skin doubler to restore the aircraft structure to the originally designed condition. Damage features are described briefly. Aircraft components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.8–1.5 1.3 1.1 a Iron content should not exceed the nickel content Fig. 3 Typical microstructure in bulk material containing mostly alpha phase ( a ) 100× and ( b ) 500×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid Fig. 4 Selectively attacked region near the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition AMS 6490 (M50) alloy steel UNS T11350 Introduction and Background Laboratory Analysis Summary of Key Findings Conclusion Discussion References References 1. ASTM E407-07 Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys, Etchant 74 2. ASTM A892-09 Standard Guide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... grounding cells, but can provide exceptional protection. For facilities and other above ground structures, the probability of a direct lightning strike can be reduced with the installation of lightning rods [ 3 ]. Lightning rods can be designed to either attract or discourage direct strikes by the shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The sections were both removed adjacent to the tubular headers. One tube section, designated as the failed tube, had circumferential cracks at the header end of the tube section. The tube section opposite to the failure reportedly had not leaked. This investigation identified the failure mechanism(s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., creep strain accumulation generally takes place in three stages, designated I, II, and III. In the initial Stage I region, there is instantaneous recoverable elastic strain upon application of the load, followed by a period of decreasing creep rate as a function of time. Eventually the creep rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel Fig. 3 The distance hardness and approximate tensile strength equivalents that can result from composition and grain size extremes Quenching and tempering, and some surface hardening methods, are designed to take advantage of the beneficial aspects of steel hardenability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... etchant 3V, 20 s. The above analysis indicated there was a strong possibility that the growth of the roll was a result of volumetric expansion due to nitrogen pickup. Therefore, an experiment was designed to quantify the expansion of heat resistant alloys as a function of increase in nitrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Fig. 3 Cross section through the eye showing cracking through the aligned stringer inclusions. Unetched. 2× Fig. 4 High-magnification view of the eye fracture surface showing fracture through the sulfide inclusions and a banded microstructure. 2% nital etchant. 28× It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... it. They are thought to be incipient fatigue cracks Etchant, 2% nital; 55×. A microhardness traverse revealed some martensite (Rc 38 to 49, as converted from Knoop readings) at the weld. As the traverse moved across the grains away from the weld, hardness dropped to Rc 31 to 33 on the average. (Occasional large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thickness, poor geometric design with sharp corners as stress raisers, and incomplete sintering evidenced by unsintered particles. These were determined to be the primary cause of failure, although inclusions on the fracture surface containing S and Al may have played a role as well. socket fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., requires a carefully planned series of steps ( Ref 1 , 2 ) designed to arrive at the cause of the problem. Proper implementation of light microscopy is of critical importance in failure analysis, and this article focuses on the use of metallographic techniques and examinations using the light microscope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the causes of failure in equipment or structures. Generally, the causes are related to the use of inadequate materials, the presence of defects, errors in design, improper assembly, or inadequate service during use. Knowledge about the causes and the correction of the anomalies allow improving...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in Emerging Fossil Energy Systems , National Association of Corrosion Engineers , Houston , p. 100 ( 1982 ). 7. Natesan K. , “High-Temperature Corrosion in Coal Gasification Systems” , Corrosion-NACE , Vol. 41 , p. 646 ( 1985 ). 10.5006/1.3582999 8. MacNab A. , “Design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or be shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable in examining failed parts. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, smear, and other preparation artifacts must be avoided. Relief (i.e., excessive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the six fundamental factors that decide a tool's performance. These are mechanical design, grade of tool steel, machining procedure, heat treatment, grinding, and handling. A deficiency in any one of the factors can lead to a tool and die failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... The Hercules is an ocean-going tug built in New Jersey in 1907 for a San Francisco company. This hardworking type of craft reached its peak development at the turn of the century because of her design. A deep, narrow hull and a 1000 hp, triple expansion engine were designed to provide sure steering and steady...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness, Rockwell macrohardness, and tensile tests. The optical microscopy etchant was nital (2% HNO 3 ). Chicago Spectrographic Laboratory performed chemistry analysis. The analysis techniques included x-ray fluorescence, glow discharge spectroscopy...