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erosion damage

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... areas and the evidence of flow patterns indicated that the wall thinning and subsequent failure were caused by internal erosion damage. The exact cause of the erosion could not be determined by the appearance of the piping. Probable causes of the erosion include an excessively high velocity flow through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; these are described in the following paragraphs. Wear particles produced by cavitation also can accelerate bearing damage. Since most cases of suction erosion are found in the upper half of the main bearing, it is easy to imagine the damage mechanism with cyclic movement of crankshaft in radial direction. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... No material or manufacturing defects were found to explain the different service performance of the two impellers. Microstructure, microhardness and material chemistry are consistent with the specified material. Examination reveals the damage mechanism to be corrosion-enhanced cavitation erosion, the most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion damage after three years' exposure. This change was made five years ago and there have been no failures since. Corrosion environments Gas pipelines Inhibitors Materials substitution Sweet gas Carbon steel Erosion - corrosion Velocity-affected corrosion A wall section of a carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the conclusion that the damage was due to liquid erosion, but it could not be firmly established whether it was caused by cavitation or by liquid impact. Recommendations included making a material substitution (to Mo-13Cr-4Ni stainless steel) and doing a redesign to reduce susceptibility to erosion as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the piston. The exact mechanism of cavitation damage is not entirely clear. Two schools of thought have developed, one supporting an essentially erosive, and the other an essentially corrosive, mechanism. Measures to prevent, or reduce, cavitation damage should be considered firstly from the aspect of design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... quantities of air were being drawn into the system when water in the supply tank dropped below a certain level. It was concluded that cavitation erosion (due to the uptake of air) caused metal removal and microstructural damage in the impellers. Recommendations included adding a water-level control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... damage can create multiple cracks that appear brittle Gouging, abrasion, polishing, or erosion Galling or scoring in direction of motion Roughened areas with compacted powdered debris (fretting) Smooth gradual transitions in wastage Multiple brittle-appearing fissures External...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-T6 combustion chamber damaged by cavitation erosion. The chamber rotated in water at moderate speed. (a) Overall view of the chamber. (b) and (c) Micrographs of cross sections of the chamber wall showing typical cavitation damage. 100 and 500x, respectively The combustion chamber consisted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Overload zone consistent with applied loading direction Ratchet marks where origins join General wastage, roughening, pitting, or trenching Stress-corrosion and hydrogen damage may create multiple cracks that appear brittle. Gouging, abrasion, polishing, or erosion Galling or storing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Examination of a damaged component involves a chain of activities that, first and foremost, requires good observation and documentation. Following receipt and documentation, the features of damage can be recorded and their cause(s) investigated, as this article briefly describes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... was the cause of damage. Hydrogen liberated by reaction with the iron caused the formation of iron sulfide after penetration of the steel, which had an explosive effect during molecular separation under high pressure. This in turn caused the crack formation in conjunction with the external and residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to as erosion-corrosion. The detrimental effects of erosion have caused problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and water walls ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones ( Ref 16 , 27 – 29 ), valves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... through. The symmetrical location on each side of the point of insertion of the narrower pipe and the localized sharp delineation of the attack indicated erosion due to the formation of turbulence. By avoiding sharp transitions and abrupt changes in cross section it is possible to design the pipe work so...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of vapor structures which interact with solid surfaces and lead to material damage. This phenomenon results in the reduction of a pump’s life and efficiency, vibration in framework, and extra noises [ 1 – 5 ]. Other common problems are erosion and corrosion. Solid particles in the liquid could also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The absence of corrosion products confirms that the surface here has been damaged by cavitation. Fig. 6 Microsection from a cavitation zone. 100 × From the results of the investigation it can be concluded that the cause of the damage is the porosity at the junction between back wall and blades...