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equivalent hardness number

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in.). To really understand the importance of this variation, it is necessary to diagram the distance hardness with the additional influence of grain size, as shown in Fig. 3 . Addition of the approximate equivalent tensile strengths to this figure emphasizes that variable hardenability can result in drastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Wind turbine blades are secured by a number of high-strength bolts. The failure of one such bolt, which caused a turbine blade to detach, was investigated to determine why it fractured. Based on the results of a detailed analysis, consisting of stress calculations, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... is equivalent to a tensile strength of approximately 37 tons per sq. in.; the weld metal showed a hardness of 200, which is not abnormal under the circumstances, but the hardened zone adjacent to the weld proved to be 400, equivalent to a tensile strength of approximately 86 tons per sq. in. Cracks which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... are two other mechanisms which may have contributed to this failure. The low carbon equivalent (− 0.28%CE) in this thin hull plate is not expected to produce a microstructure in the heat-affected zone which is susceptible to hydrogen-induced cracking. Indeed, the maximum hardness found in the heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Microscopy/Metallography Chemical Analysis/Tensile Testing/ Hardness Testing Sem/Impact Testing Conclusions Acknowledgments On February 3, 1984, Georgia Power Company informed the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) Region II that a crack had been discovered in the vent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is the service life of tooling. Product rework and rejects can be traced back to various defects spread over the die life cycle: die design, die manufacture, heat treatment, and die service. A number of mechanisms can cause initiation and propagation of die damage. Analysis of tool and die failure thus plays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Group 5 Radial clearance > group 4 Rolling-element bearing material families, groups I and II Table 3 Rolling-element bearing material families, groups I and II Steel name WN material number Composition, wt% C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ni Group I...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is outlined as well. A number of case studies and examples are cited. Failures with root causes other than residual stress are beyond the scope of this article and are not discussed. The article also briefly summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes recent advances in equipment capability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., the surface prepared lying in a plane parallel to the pin axis. This revealed that the shaft had been made from a heat-treated alloy steel, the Brinell hardness being 269, which is equivalent to an ultimate tensile strength of about 60 tons per sq. in. The thickness of the plating was approximately 0·025...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and tubing. The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for a four-year period beginning in 1981. Faulty design, fabrication, and inspection contribute to significant numbers of failures, particularly for shell components. Damage during shipment and storage must be considered because air and its contaminants may be corrosive. Field fabrication and erection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the number of specimens to represent the population. In the authors’ experience, budget constraints often limit the sample population to two or three specimens; however, if variations in results at equivalent locations on equivalent specimens are larger than the experimental error, more specimens should...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... was manufactured from a 0.5% carbon, 1% chromium steel heat treated to give a hardness value of 300 VDP, equivalent to an ultimate tensile strength of approximately 65 tpsi. Specimens from the origin of the fatigue crack were examined microscopically. It was confirmed that the material was in the hardened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... by this process — the actual number can, of course, never be known — it must be emphasised that this operation results in a reduction in the fatigue strength of the part treated. In the case of steels in the higher tensile range, this can be particularly severe and where parts are subjected to dynamic stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code Section I for Power Boilers. 9 Autogenously seam-welded tubes were manufactured to SA-268, Grade 430, Unified Numbering System (UNS) S43000, with a mill heat treatment of 650 °C (1200 °F) minimum and a maximum hardness of 90 HRB. 7 Tube-to-header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... confirmatory tends to indicate that the individual rings or the complete column were not stress relieved after manufacture. It is significant perhaps that one of the greatest changes in hardness (21,27 points) was seen on one side of the circumferential crack and (15,21 points) at the equivalent location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... strength (UTS) has been shown to be experimentally related to the Brinell hardness number (BHN) by the form of UTS (MPa) = 3.4 × BHN [ 9 ]. Also, fatigue properties are frequently correlated with tensile properties. Using the carbon steel as an example, the fatigue limit is approximately 50...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in Engineering , John Wiley & Sons , New York, NY , 1980 . 5. Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Irons and Steels , 4th ed. , ASM Materials Data Series , ASM International , Materials Park, OH , 2000 . 6. Boller C. : Materials Data for Cyclic Loading, Part B: Low-Alloy Steels, Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... assembly in which gear teeth deformed because of faulty design and low core hardness. Details A and B show deformed areas on drive-gear teeth and mating internal splines. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 8 Two spiral power springs from a textile machine; (a) is an acceptable part, whereas (b) took...