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environmental stress crazing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... craze zone formation is not completely understood. The solution composition of the environmental media is found to be important in stress cracking ( Ref 47 , 48 ). It has been reported that the same amount of a detergent in alcohol is less aggressive than it is in water, although the detergent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... excessive stress on ophthalmic lenses in the form of working or residual stresses. Acetone environment Cracking, environmental effects Crazing Mechanical properties Plastic Safety glasses Swelling Polycarbonate Environmental cracking (plastics) Background Application Metal-framed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... amorphous regions of the polymer, causing a reduction of these intermolecular forces and leading to molecular slippage and craze formation. Fig. 3 View of hydrogen bonding molecular interactions in a polyamide 6,6, resulting in attraction between neighboring molecules Environmental stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... limited by the synergistic effects of stress and a hostile environment. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as environmental stress cracking (ESC), causes the initiation of crazing and crack formation which can lead to failure by changing the material from a ductile to a brittle plastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... macromolecular structure. Applied stress serves to straighten the polymer chains and perhaps to redistribute the free volume so that sizable microvoids are formed. Depending on the nature of the polymer, these microvoids continue to grow into localized areas of stress whitening, stress crazing, stress cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...., alkalis and acids), ionizing radiation, and biological degradation, along with the combined effects of mechanical stress, temperature, and moisture (including environmental stress corrosion). The article also includes information on the use of accelerated testing for predicting material property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The section is viewed between crossed polarizers, showing shear bands. Stress Crazing As previously noted, a craze is a microcrack that is spanned by plastic microfibrils, typically oriented in the direction of applied stress. The width of a craze is of the order of 1 to 2 μm, and it may grow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... how the applied stress, strain and/or strain rate, and temperature influence the rate of creep and stress relaxation and produce yielding. In addition, the effects of thermal and mechanical history must be considered. Polymers deform by two primary mechanisms: shear flow and crazing ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is highly influenced by the presence of stress concentrations or defects in the component. Environmental influences include temperature, humidity, and the presence of chemical species that can embrittle or plasticize the polymer ( Ref 14 – 25 ). Moreover, fatigue behavior is highly influenced by molecular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the compression half-cycle. This area remains almost constant for several cycles and then increases significantly ( Fig. 4 ). This effect is attributed to the production and growth of crazes after some induction period. For ABS, an increase of stress amplitude causes the energy to dissipate per half-cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... four of the eight major aging mechanisms, namely environmental stress cracking, chemical degradation, creep, and fatigue, as well as the methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. Later, several methods of service lifetime prediction that have gained industry-wide acceptance, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mechanism of fracture, such as crazing and shear tearing, and the various fracture modes of polymers, such as brittle and ductile behavior, fatigue, environmental stress cracking, creep, and others, are covered in the articles “ Crazing and Fracture in Polymers ,” “ Fracture Mechanics Testing of Plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... deformation Crazing and stress-cracking Fracture or crazing due to an internal environmental chemical or stress-cracking agent Fracture or crazing due to an external chemical or stress-cracking agent May occur due to high level of internal stress or to externally applied stress Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... amount of deformation rather than one of reaching the point of actual fracture. Quite often, plastics undergoing a secondary creep deformation will also eventually reveal visual changes, such as stress whitening or crazing, which can act as early warning signals of an approaching failure ( Ref 3 , 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This was confirmed by microscopic examination, which showed the cracks to have been produced by stress-corrosion cracking of the material. While the specific cause of the stress-corrosion cracking was not investigated, it is suggested that there must have been a spillage of corrosive fluid on the bolt prior to heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the macroscopic examination was that these cracks had been produced before the bolt was placed in service, and indeed, before the steel was heat treated. This was confirmed by microscopic examination, which showed the cracks to have been produced by stress-corrosion cracking of the material. While the specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coverage on specific types of fracture (processes such as ductile and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) can be found in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions. Beach marks are produced by a change in crack growth conditions, such as a change in environment or stress level or a pause in stress cycling (interruption in service). Consequently, beach marks are not found in most laboratory tests conducted under uniform loading and environmental conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or stress level or a pause in stress cycling (interruption in service). Consequently, beach marks are not found in most laboratory tests conducted under uniform loading and environmental conditions ( Fig. 4 , 13 ). Examples of beach marks observed on field failures are presented in Fig. 18 and 19...