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environmental factors

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with a better understanding of how to evaluate and prevent it. It then presents factors that affect and contribute to the susceptibility of plastic to ESC: material factors, chemical factors, stress, and environmental factors. The article includes the collection of background information to understand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, can limit their use in many applications. A combination of chemical and physical factors, along with stress, usually leads to a serious deterioration in properties, even if stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occur when an overload failure is caused by a combination of ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms. It describes the general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article discusses some of the material, mechanical, and environmental factors that may be involved in determining the root cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of accelerated life testing and aging of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced plastic materials for assessing long-term material properties and life expectancy in hostile service environments. It considers various environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, weathering, liquid chemicals (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the factors that influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. Because the appearance of IG fractures is often very similar, the principal focus is placed on the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the corrosion-wear synergism in aqueous slurry and grinding environments. It describes the effects of environmental factors on corrosive wear and provides information on the impact and three-body abrasive-corrosive wear. The article also discusses the various...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause a weakening of the grain boundaries and, in turn, influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. It discusses the mechanisms of IG fractures, including the dimpled IG fracture, the IG...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... from the same room, and an unfailed unit from another room) and an unused 1991 unit -- were examined. casting revealed no material defects or mechanical damage. Because of several environmental factors, it was suspected that the failed unit was exposed to temperatures much above the normal office...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The mechanical and microstructural properties of screws were within the commercial specifications. In the absence of the environmental factors, the performance of the screws would have been acceptable. Conclusion and Recommendations Most Probable Cause The premature failure was caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....) Environmentally induced cracking is an umbrella term that includes SCC, hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, and corrosion fatigue. Although there are factors common among the different forms of EIC, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. For more information, refer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of these parameters are comprehensively examined during the design process. This article focuses on all of these factors, except processing-related failures, which are outside the design and engineering domain. It is dedicated to the identification and avoidance of common problems associated with the selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used was not adequate to guarantee the operating life of the blades due to excess sulfur trioxide, carbon, and sodium in the combustion gases, which caused pitting. A molten salt environmental cracking mechanism was also a factor and was enhanced by the working stresses and by the presence of silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of aircraft component and system-level failures that resulted from various factors, including operational stresses, environmental effects, improper maintenance/inspection/repair, construction and installation issues, manufacturing issues, and inadequate design. aircraft accident investigation aircraft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and result in a part failure. As material selection is a key step in the design of any part, designers must understand how candidate materials will perform within the design envelope of the part. Incomplete assessment of the role of these environmental factors on part performance may be a cause of design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are susceptible to the effects of weather. These weather factors that contribute to degradation of plastics include heat and temperature variations, humidity and moisture variations, solar radiation, oxygen, microbiologic attack, and other environmental elements. The results of exposing plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., polymers are particularly sensitive to mechanical loading conditions, molecular variables, additives, and environmental factors ( Ref 1 – 9 ). Mechanical variables affecting fatigue performance include the amplitude, mean and peak cyclic forces, and the nature of the waveform ( Ref 10 – 13 ). Fatigue life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... . It is also necessary to factor in loading rate, especially when the environmental temperature is near T g . Conclusions Environmental effects on polymeric materials cover a broad range of different behaviors. Plasticization, solvation, and swelling, involving diffusion of the chemicals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... four of the eight major aging mechanisms, namely environmental stress cracking, chemical degradation, creep, and fatigue, as well as the methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. Later, several methods of service lifetime prediction that have gained industry-wide acceptance, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Flame impingement Humidity (wet/dry cycles) Galvanic differences Moisture Liquid metal Flow/flow rate Erosion Cavitation Hydrogen content Biological agents This list shows many of the environmental factors that must be kept in mind during the design process, before any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Moisture Liquid metal exposure Flow/flow rate Erosion Cavitation Hydrogen content Biological agents This list shows many of the environmental factors that must be kept in mind during the design process before any thought is given to properties. When the service conditions...