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environment-assisted cracking

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and metallurgical failures, environment-assisted cracking failures, and other damage mechanisms that induce cracking failures. Finally, the article provides information on inspection practices. chemical-processing plants environment-assisted cracking fabrication flaws failure analysis piping power plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... with 17-4 PH stainless steel bolts (Condition H 1150M) having a hardness of 22 HRC. Bolts Chlorides Corrosion environment 4137 UNS G41370 Stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Figure 1 shows an example of hydrogen-assisted SCC failure of four AISI 4137 steel bolts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and hardened layer. Crack Origins/Paths The dominant fracture initiated at a thread root and propagated by environmentally-assisted slow crack growth until final fracture. Thread roots adjacent to the dominant crack also contained cracks that were initiated in the carburized case but arrested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... environment was alkaline black liquor at 175° C (350° F). The pipe had developed cracks on the inside surface coincident with an external support gusset. The cracks had initiated at wide corrosion grooves. The early stages were corrosion-assisted fatigue cracks ( Fig. 1 ). The cracks initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the material limitations of ASB and provide conclusions and recommendations based on the test results. In particular, there was interest in quantifying the stress intensity threshold for environmentally assisted cracking ( K th )—hereafter abbreviated as EAC—in relevant environments. Ni–Al–Bronze (UNS C63200...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract Stainless steel is frequently used for bone fracture fixation in spite of its sensitivity to pitting and cracking in chloride containing environments (such as organic fluids) and its susceptibility to fatigue and corrosion fatigue. A 316L stainless steel plate implant used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This is not surprising considering the hardness of the steel. But absence of clear striations does not imply the absence of fatigue. Environment assisted cracking may also play a role. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... corrosion to occur. The failure was hydrogen-assisted and was attributed to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and/or corrosion fatigue (CF). Contributing to the failure was the fact that the material grain size was approximately double the required size, most likely caused from higher than nominal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nickel, 600 Hydrogen gas charged at 723 K, tested at room temperature K500 Cathodic charge, seawater Fig. 3 Potential ranges of environmentally assisted cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated at pits near the pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Stress Temperature Corrosion Wear Radiation Electrical In understanding individual damage mechanisms, it is important to also recognize that many unique mechanisms are driven by more than one environment. For example, corrosion-assisted fatigue is controlled both by exposure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... features listed in Table 1 will always be present or identifiable in a particular case for a given damage mode. For example, rubbing, erosion, and impact damage can obscure fracture features. Environmental corrosion attack can destroy evidence of a specific damage mechanism, while elevated-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... propagation in an aqueous environment and the crack advancing from the tip of a pit are indicators of a condition of hydrogen stress cracking (also referred to as hydrogen-assisted cracking ). 1 , 2 Verification of Chemical Composition The results of the chemical analysis are presented in Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... M.J. , “ Joint Efficiency Factors for A.O. Smith Line Pipe ,” a Kiefner white paper, Dec 2012 10. Yurioka N. and Suzuki H. , Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in C-Mn and Low Alloy Steel Weldments , Int. Mater. Rev. , Vol 35 (No. 1 ), 1990 , p 217 – 249 10.1179/imr...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement, in classic form, is reversible, in that the damage should be eliminated by removing the hydrogen. However, hydrogen can also cause permanent damage from exposure to environmental hydrogen during service. Gaseous environments containing hydrogen are also damaging. Hairline cracking usually follows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is not found in all environments; especially in marine environments which are well known to induce serious stress corrosion cracking (SCC) problems due to the presence of chloride ions [ 2 – 4 ]. Stress corrosion cracking is a form of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) that is of great significance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... failure similar to that produced by hydrogen assisted or stress corrosion cracking and primarily driven by the preload. Ferritic stainless steels are normally considered to be immune to stress corrosion, although isolated incidents in marine environments have been reported ( 6 ). Normally such sustained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... History , translated by Holland. P. pp. 364 – 365 . McGraw-Hill ( 1964 ) 2. Lynch S.P. : Failures of structures and components by environmentally assisted cracking . Eng. Failure Anal. 1 , 77 – 90 ( 1994 ) 10.1016/1350-6307(94)90009-4 3. Lynch S.P. : Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... probably could not withstand the axial loads associated with the pulling operation and thus parted. It is possible that the pipe suffered from environmentally assisted cracking, such as chloride stress-corrosion cracking or sulfide stress cracking. Initiation of multiple cracks and separation along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is caused by cyclic wearing force in combination with corrosion. Note that the cyclic load may not necessarily be the force that causes wear, but it results in surface fatigue cracking, thus assisting the wear damage. For instance, rolling bearings working in a corrosive environment are subjected to cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Overload Fracture Stress-Corrosion Cracking Ultrasonic-Cleaning-Induced Fatigue Corrosion Fatigue Fracture Artificial Pacemakers Left Ventricular Assist Devices Failure Modes Overload Fracture Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Pacemaker Lead Failures Wear...