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energy-source intensity

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... instrument. Field of view, 1 μm Survey Spectra Typically, the first piece of analytical data obtained in an AES experiment is a survey spectrum. A survey spectrum is a plot of AES signal intensity versus the kinetic energy of the detected electrons. Survey spectra show which elements are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... energy of the detected electrons. Survey spectra show which elements are present and, after applying sensitivity factors ( Ref 5 ), can be used to quantify the amount of each element detected. Survey spectra are typically displayed on a differentiated scale of signal intensity to better observe the small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... specimens. The electron gun consists of the electron source and the components for acceleration of electrons and production of a high-energy electron beam. The electron source is either thermionic or field emission. There are two types of thermionic electron guns used in SEM instruments: tungsten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and directed to an x-ray detector. The energy of each x-ray and number of x-rays at each energy are recorded. The x-ray intensities (counts) at each energy are compared to values for known standards to obtain a quantitative measurement of the composition for the unknown specimen. Other common applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... loading limits, and loading waveform. These features appear to produce failure characteristics not otherwise encountered. Additionally, due to the viscoelastic or time-dependent nature of the polymers, significant energy dissipation occurs under pure fatigue or combined creep-fatigue loading conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a few micrometers up to several hundred micrometers). Thus, each impact on the solid surface concerns only a very small area. Short time: The duration of the impact is about several microseconds. High temperature: Because of the localized dissipation of energy during collapse, local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The artificial light source should have sufficient intensity to permit observation of discontinuities in the translucent material and any variations in material thickness. Lighting Conditions of Observation <xref rid="a0006764-ref9" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 9)</xref> Lighting plays a crucial role during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... section stress exceeds 80% of yield strength. Value not included in average or standard deviation. Source: Ref 13 Based on the preceding discussion, it should be apparent that the stress-intensity factor has a profound effect on the growth of cracks. In fact, the stress-intensity factor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a function of time within a single flight. One can imagine that, due to the physics dictating the behavior of thermal and mechanical wave propagation as well as thermal energy storage, the phasing of the mechanical demand will likely not be identical to the phasing of the thermal demand placed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a somewhat limited opportunity to irradiate small specimens in the beam stop at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute neutron scattering facility, there is no available high-volume source for high-energy proton beam irradiations because the LANSCE irradiation facility is no longer being maintained. High...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., depending on crack locations. “Mud cracking” was observed in selected areas of fracture surfaces. Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrographic analysis of dark, discolored areas on fracture surfaces revealed primarily base metal oxides ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 6 Fracture through crack shown in Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fractured in multiple pieces. If chevrons are visible on the fracture surface, the sequence of crack formation can be used to obtain the crack formation sequence and the location of the initiation site. Source: Ref 2 The fracture surface orientation relative to the component geometry may also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Explosive cladding is a viable method for cladding different materials together, but the complicated behavior of materials under ballistic impacts raises the probability of interfacial shear failure. To better understand the relationship between impact energy and interfacial shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be considered when assessing service loads in failure analysis. Another consequence of the viscoelasticity of polymers becomes obvious when fatigue loading is involved, particularly at high frequency. Hysteretic viscoelastic effects cause energy dissipation as heat, which can accumulate due to the low thermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Silicon 0.080 1.00 max Chromium 13.300 12.00–14.00 Molybdenum &lt;0.050 … Selenium &lt;0.050 … Aluminum &lt;0.050 … Nitrogen &lt;0.050 … Nickel 0.260 … (a) Source: Ref 2 Chemical Analysis of Surface Deposits A specimen of scale material removed from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) initially and concluded that the shot peening intensity for the IT part was most likely excessive. The excessive peening produced surface microcracks and led to premature failure. The IL also stated that the microcracks may have relieved some of the residual stress on the surface of the part. ARL performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... characteristic of acidic attack. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope revealed the presence of chlorine in the pit deposits, indicating that the pitting was promoted by underdeposit chloride attack. The presence of copper in deposits on the internal surface of the tubing may have acted as a secondary factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... = 5 σ y ( CVN − σ y 20 ) where K Ic is the critical plane-strain stress-intensity factor (ksi in. ), σ y is the 0.2% offset yield strength (ksi), and CVN is the upper-shelf Charpy V notch energy (ft. lbf). The upper-shelf Charpy V-notch was difficult...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shows streamlines in a pipe for flow contraction and flow expansion. Fig. 8 Streamlines for water in pipe of variable diameter. Source: Ref 24 Material losses have been correlated with the local, near-wall intensity of turbulence in single-phase (liquid only) flows ( Ref 23 , 24...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that repeated plastic deformation can result in localization of permanent microstructural changes. For example, under inelastic cyclic loading, bands of intense slip known as persistent slip bands form in individual crystals of pure fcc metals such as copper. Fine protrusions and intrusions (peaks and troughs...