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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modulus or modulus of elasticity; energy E elastic or storage modulus E viscous or loss modulus EAC environmentally assisted cracking EBSP electron backscattered pattern ECT equicohesive temperature EDM electric discharge machining EDS energy dispersive spectroscopy EDX energy-dispersive x-ray (analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... tends to behave in a ductile fashion and can absorb more energy prior to fracture. The definition of low temperature and high temperature are all relative to the material of construction. To prevent brittle fracture failures, an engineering evaluation is typically performed to establish a minimum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... surface discontinuities. These imperfections were not removed by grinding. This component is subjected to internal steam pressure to provide heat energy for drying. Because the vessel is under pressure, a crack could present a safety hazard; therefore, it was removed from service for evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., with physical embodiments (or configurations) selected to fulfill the functions. In an automobile, for example, the function of the engine is to convert a source of on-board energy to rotational mechanical power. This function could be achieved with the usual internal combustion engine, but it could also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., with physical embodiments (or configurations) selected to fulfill the functions. In an automobile, for example, the function of the engine is to convert a source of on-board energy to rotational mechanical power. This function could be achieved with the usual internal combustion engine, but it could also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... with the exothermically decomposing, oxygen-rich environment provided by the ammonium nitrate solution in the neutralizer under certain conditions. We determined that the titanium participated in the runaway chemical reaction/decomposition of adjacent ammonium nitrate and by itself provided a significant energy boost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Denny R.B. , Small L.M. , and Williams I. : “ Fire Engulfment Tests of a 5 Tonne LPG Tank ,” J. Hazard. Mater. , 1988 , 20 , pp. 55 – 71 10.1016/0304-3894(88)87006-7 . 5. Birk A.M. : “ Thermal Protection of Pressure Vessels by Internal Wall Cooling During Pressure Relief...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 840 ­ 868 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001097 Visual Examination Introduction Failure Background SEM/EDS Chemical Analysis Discussion XRD Summary Tin Pest and RoHS On 1 July 2006, a new directive, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), took effect [ 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... different steels. Partial examination of a BFA after test firing on an M-16 rifle with live ammunition. Comparison of microstructures and microindentation hardness of different adapters. Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analyses of fragments from both the exploded adapter and a sound adapter that had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis Fracture surfaces from both of the fractured bolts were prepared for examination with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to characterize the fracture micromechanism(s). Microvoid coalescence, indicative of a ductile overload, was observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation modes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... power-generating plants are presently operating in the United States, with a combined generating capacity of 106,905 MWe. In 1990, they generated 20.6% of the nation's electrical energy demand. 1 Component failures occur from time to time in these plants, and the rigorous in-service inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low-energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and oxidation; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage; creep and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is necessary prior to any investigative work being performed on the scene. Examples of potential safety hazards at accident scenes include heavy traffic at an automobile accident scene, the presence of energized/exposed electrical conductors in a structure, unstable structures at a structural failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of Pressure Vessel and Heat Exchanger Components , ASME , New York, NY , 1990 (See also “On Eliminating a Parameter in Welding Research Bulletin #198,” in ASME-PVP Vol. 188 , 1990 . 5. Brown S.J. , Handbook of Explosions and Hazardous Release , Butterworth Publishing Co. (to be released...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... consideration of the valve materials would eliminate this failure mode. (At least it would eliminate this cause of the failure mode; there could be other causes.) An analysis of the pilot light would reveal the hazard if it fails (i.e., it is not lit) and the gas is on. This failure mode cannot readily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... loading ( Ref 2 , 3 ). This includes numerical methods to predict response-time histories, theory-based pressure-impulse diagrams, or closed-form energy equations that predict maximum responses of an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom or multi-degree-of-freedom system. Using these methods requires...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., leading to financial loss and life hazards. Therefore, it is important to understand how polymers and other materials wear. Similar to the wear of metal, polymer wear is affected by several factors that may be broadly divided into three groups: mechanical, environmental, and thermal. These three groups...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... energy for diffusion of oxygen, and ν is frequency. It is worth noting that this equation will have the same form regardless of whether the first crack to initiate can grow in a stable manner or if the initiation process must be repeated N i times to form a stable microcrack since the same basic...