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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... energy dispersive x-ray spectrography. The deposits were found to contain a major amount of iron, and minor to trace amounts of copper, silicon, and sulfur. Probable causes of the erosion include an excessively high velocity flow through the piping, extremely turbulent flow, and/or the intrusions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Design of Pumps, Valves, and Elbows Research has shown that computer modeling is becoming a tool for the design of wear-resistant slurry pumps ( Ref 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ). A computer code is used to carry out the numerical flow simulations within the pump channels, and an energy-based, wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... support areas), energy or material flows, and physical matings or other spatial requirements (e.g., certain spaces may be unavailable to the part). The types of dimensional features that are defined during configuration design may include ( Ref 4 ): Walls of various kinds, such as flat, curved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or its surrounding environment. These interactions include forces (loads and available support areas), energy or material flows, and physical matings or other spatial requirements (e.g., certain spaces may be unavailable to the part). The types of dimensional features that are defined during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occur simultaneously, and both rotational and vertical resistances can provide different measures of flow energy that quantify the resistance to forced flow. The three categories of powder properties available from rheometer experiments include bulk, dynamic flow, and shear properties ( Ref 21 ). Bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Avoiding Cavitation in the Suction Stage of High-Energy Pumps , World Pumps , Vol 348 , 1995 , p 10 – 48 28. Chan W.K. , Correlation between Cavitation Type and Cavitation Erosion in Centrifugal Pumps , Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow , Vol 11 ( No. 3 ), 1990 , p 269 – 271 29. Hunt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the down leg, goose neck, and blow pipe into thirty-four water cooled tuyeres. The hot blast flow rate of the furnace is 350 kNm 3 /h with an oxygen flow rate of 37 kNm 3 /h (% enrichment ~ 7.5) and humidity of 15 t/h. In view of the fact that the hot blast flows through the blow pipe at a high temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fouling of gas passages in tube bands by deposition of fly ash can lead to erosion by forcing the flue gases to flow through smaller passages at higher velocity. This effect, sometimes called laning, exposes tube surfaces to a greater probability of impact by particles having higher kinetic energy, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Appl. Phys. , Vol 92 , 2002 , p 2821 – 2828 10.1063/1.1495533 8. Fujisawa K. , Yamagata T. , and Fujisawa N. , Damping Effect on Impact Pressure from Liquid Droplet Impingement on Wet Wall , Ann. Nucl. Energy , Vol 121 , 2018 , p 260 – 268 10.1016/j.anucene.2018.07.008...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 Example of fretting and related visible imprint on the main bearing shell. Adapted from Ref 10 . Reprinted with permission from MAN Energy Solutions Fig. 2 Fatigue crack generated by fretting damage in a rivet hole and fastened assemblies. Bottom two images reprinted from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Explosive cladding is a viable method for cladding different materials together, but the complicated behavior of materials under ballistic impacts raises the probability of interfacial shear failure. To better understand the relationship between impact energy and interfacial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... machine (Instron-1195 model, Instron Ltd., High Wycombe Bucks, UK) at a strain rate of 6.6 × 10 −4 /s. Standard Charpy V-notch samples were prepared and tested at 0 °C for Charpy impact energy (CIE). The temperature rise during testing was within 2 °C. Microstructural Analysis Mechanical Properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-pressure history (and resulting stress waves) can produce circumferential cracks or deformation patterns around the initial area of impact ( Fig. 8a ), depending on the properties of the surface material and the energy of the impact. Following impact, the liquid flows away radially at high velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... released the torque spring when it had been wound to a predetermined angle. The trigger could be attached at several positions, allowing the spring to be torqued to angles of from 105 to 280°. Upon release, the energy stored in the spring rotated the shaft and hammer until the hammer struck the anvil...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the as-molded condition, while the second run evaluates the inherent properties of the material. Results The plotted results obtained during a DSC analysis are referred to as a thermogram. The thermogram shows the heat flow in energy units or energy per mass units on the y -axis as a function of either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with thermogravimetric analysis. Based on test data, the epoxy resin had not been properly cured and was hydrolyzed in its compromised state because of humidity. Hence, the depolymerized material gradually softened to the point where the effect of creep caused it to flow, ultimately causing the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to caustic gouging Fig. 33 Inner-surface view of the failed tube showing scale crust Fig. 34 Close-up view of transverse section of the tube. A groove formation with wavelike contours filled with scale is seen in the bottom portion. Fig. 36 Energy-dispersive spectroscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... accelerated rate. Temperature can also significantly contribute to the erosion corrosion phenomenon. Most incidents involving single-phase flow conditions have occurred in the 50 to 230 °C (120 to 445 °F) temperature range, with 140 to 260 °C (285 to 500 °F) being the normal range for two-phase flow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the tear resistance of the material is important. At impingement angles close to 90°, the behavior of the elastomer is essentially elastic, and resilience is a major factor in determining wear resistance. For abrasive-wear conditions in which significant energy levels are dissipated in the abrasive/wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., dislocations easily cross slip. The rate of cross slip for a given alloy or element is usually indicated by its stacking-fault energy. Dislocation cross slip is hindered by the presence of stacking faults, and a high stacking-fault energy indicates a low number of impeding stacking faults and an increased...