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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...- and environmental-specific constants a and b ; the linear elastic stress-intensity factor range, Δ K ; an activation energy, Q e ; and the temperature, T . Equation 12 estimates the fatigue crack growth per cycle, da / dN , as a function of material- and environmental-specific constants C and q...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and bearings. Equations of motion accounting for misalignment and unbalance were then derived using finite elements. A spectral method for resolving these equations was also developed, making it possible to obtain and analyze dynamic system response and identify misalignment and unbalance conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ⋅ exp Q R T eff ⋅ Δ ε p − 2 δ In Eq 3 , D o is the pre-exponential part of the diffusion coefficient Q is, the activation energy for diffusion of oxygen, and ν is frequency. It is worth noting that this equation will have the same form regardless of whether the first...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the maximum shear stress equals the shear stress in a tension specimen when it begins to yield. Another common failure model is the von Mises criterion, which is based on a determination of distortion energy at yield and recognizes that in a constant-volume isotropic material, hydrostatic stresses cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... system is used for picking and transfers strain energy to the projectile before it separates from the picker shoe. The torsion bar can be adjusted to deliver the energy required to propel the projectile through the guide teeth to the shuttle brake [ 1 , 2 ]. The torsion bar mechanism is shown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Impact wear coefficient values Table 1 Impact wear coefficient values Reference Surface measured Impact energy, kgf · mm No. of impacts Lubrication Impact wear coefficient, K Ref 13 Copper (hard) 2 1 N 53 × 10 −6 Steel 20 1 N 67 × 10 −6 Steel 20 1 Y 10...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are assumed to exist at important structural details, such as holes or sharp corners, where the accompanying high stresses accelerate crack growth. Using an appropriate crack growth rate equation, the initial flaw is grown mathematically through iterative calculations that take into account the expected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., at this stress level, fracture mechanics indicated that the 25 mm (1 in.) starter crack exceeded or was very near the critical crack length for the material. Additional factors not taken into account in the design equations included cold work from a hole punching operation, thread imprinting in bolt holes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Appl. Phys. , Vol 92 , 2002 , p 2821 – 2828 10.1063/1.1495533 8. Fujisawa K. , Yamagata T. , and Fujisawa N. , Damping Effect on Impact Pressure from Liquid Droplet Impingement on Wet Wall , Ann. Nucl. Energy , Vol 121 , 2018 , p 260 – 268 10.1016/j.anucene.2018.07.008...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... J.N. , and Sharma I. , Studies on Abrasive Wear of Carbon Fiber (Short) Reinforced Polyamide Composites , Tribol. Int. , Vol 25 , 1992 , p 53 – 60 10.1016/0301-679X(92)90121-3 20. Giltrow J.P. , A Relationship Between Abrasive Wear and the Cohesive Energy of Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or compound impact, wear is caused by a process similar to that of adhesive wear during sliding ( Ref 3 , 16 ). More severe conditions at the contact lead to the occurrence of surface fatigue, subsurface crack growth, and spalling ( Ref 15 , 17 – 19 ). Very large impact energies bring about failures due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by attaining improved mechanical properties and distortion control during heat treatment . Work done by Ohio State University and Case Western Reserve University for US Department of Energy , Washington DC ( 1995 ) 10.2172/434855 10. Lee G.-A. , Im Y.-T. : Finite-element investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations, and practical examples are provided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The carbon steel feedwater piping at a waste-to-energy plant was suffering from wall thinning and leaking after being in service for approximately six years. Metallographic examination of ring sections removed front the piping revealed a normal microstructure consisting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Tribol. Int. , Aug 1981 , p 231 – 243 10.1016/0301-679X(81)90050-5 8. Rhee S.K. , Wear , Vol 16 , 1970 , p 431 9. Kar M.K. and Bahadur S. , The Wear Equation for Unfilled and Filled Polyoxymethylene , Wear , Vol 30 , 1974 , p 337 – 348 10. Viswanath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... section through the precracked region of the spring revealing a thick scale (vertical surface) on the fracture surface. 2% nital etch. 148× The chemical composition of the tested spring satisfied the specification requirements. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) of the discolored precracked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., no measurable plastic deformation occurred—qualitative evidence that general yielding did not occur prior to failure. To obtain a more quantitative estimate of the stress at the time of failure, a simplistic fracture mechanics analysis was performed. From equations such as the one given below ( Ref 1 ), K Ic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness, Rockwell macrohardness, and tensile tests. The optical microscopy etchant was nital (2% HNO 3 ). Chicago Spectrographic Laboratory performed chemistry analysis. The analysis techniques included x-ray fluorescence, glow discharge spectroscopy...