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energy efficiency

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A nickel alloy cylinder plated with chromium along its inner liner, installed in a commercial ice cream freezer, showed gray discoloration along its OD surface. The discolored parts exhibited significantly reduced cooling efficiency as compared with new cylinders. During operation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of energy consumed annually by U.S. industry for crushing and grinding purposes, whereas contributions from minerals account for 50%; cement, 25%; coal, 13%; and agricultural products, 12% ( Ref 5 ). The development of more efficient mining, transportation, and processing systems has allowed exploitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the operating principles and applications of detectors for x-ray spectroscopy, namely energy-dispersive spectrometers, wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, and handheld x-ray fluorescence systems. The processes involved in x-ray analysis in the SEM and handheld x-ray fluorescence analysis are then covered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the material. The following key criteria should be considered when choosing an additive package ( Ref 3 ): Additives should have good miscibility with the polymer or prepolymer. Additives should be efficient and cost-effective in their function. Additives should be nontoxic, with no foul odor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... tends to behave in a ductile fashion and can absorb more energy prior to fracture. The definition of low temperature and high temperature are all relative to the material of construction. To prevent brittle fracture failures, an engineering evaluation is typically performed to establish a minimum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the unit. Inspection was performed because of decreasing unit efficiency. Sample Selection The tube sheet was removed from the unit and was determined to be nonrepairable. Through-thickness samples were removed from the 5 to 7 o'clock positions. Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... sources used in weathering are commonly compared to this spectrum. The photon energy ( E photon ) is inversely proportional to the wavelength (λ) or proportional to the frequency (ν) and is calculated from the photon energy equation, with Planck’s constant ( h ) and the speed of light ( c ): (Eq 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Powder flow is controlled by an inert gas through a set of nozzles and a focused laser or electron beam. For DED with powder feedstock, the powder size and shape are dictated by the feeder specifications. The size is in the range of 5 to 150 μm. The capture efficiency in the energy beam is typically 40...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Several stainless steel coils cracked during a routine unwinding procedure, prompting an investigation to determine the cause. The analysis included optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and tensile testing. An examination of the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment on aero gas turbine engines and provides an overview of aging, diffusion, and interdiffusion phenomena. It also discusses the processes involved in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Acoustic or inductive energy is applied to a part, and cracks heat up more than surrounding regions. Detection of surface-breaking cracks Acoustic energy is mode- and shape-sensitive so is nonuniform in heating effect. Also no crack depth information Same as thermal/IR above Mostly metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ) 2 where a is a constant, V 1 is the molar volume of the solvent, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, and δ p and δ s are the solubility parameters (that is, square roots of the cohesive energy densities) of the plastic and solvent, respectively. Equation 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Reinforcements (fibrous or particulate) generally are used to increase load-carrying capacity, strength, resistance to creep, and wear. Limitations of strength and thermal conductivity can be overcome efficiently by selecting the right reinforcements and fillers in the appropriate amount, combination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0090276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... is in contact with the high-temperature face during approximately one dryer rotation. The demand for more efficient papermaking has led to larger and faster machines. Current Yankee dryers can be 5.5 m (18 ft) in diameter with a 6.1 m (20 ft) face length, operating at 175 °C (350 °F), 830 kPa (120 psi...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can be overcome efficiently by the right selection of reinforcements and fillers in the appropriate amount, combination, and processing technology. The tribological performance of reinforced polymers is governed by the type of base matrix, the nature of the filler (type, amount, size, shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-energy sites on deformation bands. Similar structure has been reported in other investigations of copper-base alloys ( Ref 3 , 4 ). The effect of strain and high levels of oxygen in the material created a condition susceptible to grain-boundary separation at elevated temperatures. Grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... will constitute failure. A plastic automotive bumper is a good example of this class of failure. A bumper system is required to absorb specified levels of energy while simultaneously protecting the rest of the automobile from damage. If the plastic bumper withstands an impact without damage but undergoes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.023 42.5 0.025 39.9 0.026 39.9 0.030 39.0 0.033 38.5 Notch Toughness Notch toughness characterizes a material’s ability to absorb energy during high strain rate loading (i.e., impact). The Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact test has become the standard for this property. A plot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... tool steel) UNS T20813 Al-6063 (6xxx series, wrought aluminum-magnesium silicon alloy) UNS A96063 Introduction A very important factor contributing to the performance and economics (efficiency and quality) of any hot metalforming process is the service life of tooling. Product rework...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a function of time within a single flight. One can imagine that, due to the physics dictating the behavior of thermal and mechanical wave propagation as well as thermal energy storage, the phasing of the mechanical demand will likely not be identical to the phasing of the thermal demand placed...