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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Flotation , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 136 ( No. 6 ), 1989 , p 1734 – 1740 10.1149/1.2097001 5. National Materials Advisory Board, “Comminution and Energy Consumption,” NMAB-364, National Academy Press , 1981 6. Adam K. , Natarajan K.A. , Riemer S.C. , and Iwasaki I...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of chromium carbides, first intergranularly and then within the grains. Excessive formation and coarsening of these carbides lead to matrix consumption and subsequent transformation to ferrite and graphite. Stresses generated by phase transformations promote decohesion of metal particles and graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and manufacturing and repair deficiencies. failure analysis gas turbines steam turbine blades turbine components INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES convert chemical energy from fuel into mechanical energy, powering a range of utilities and industrial processes. The reliable operation of these turbines has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Increased ( Se ) −1 19 PA 6, PMMA, PE, POM, PA 66, PP, PTFE, PC, PTFCE, polyphenylene oxide, and PVC … … Cohesive energies 20 PA 6, PTFE, PP, POM, HDPE, PVC, and PMMA … … Plowing component of friction, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation to failure of polymers 21 PET GF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Severe pitting corrosion. General overview Aqua tubular boilers were projected to provide elements to follow the evolution of industrial processes and their demands, such as better performance, lower consumption, rapid generation, and larger amounts of vapor. This kind of boiler is characterized...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... similar to that of adhesive wear during sliding ( Ref 3 , 13 ). More severe conditions at the contact lead to the occurrence of surface fatigue, subsurface crack growth and spalling ( Ref 12 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). Very large impact energies bring about failures due to surface fracture and produce rapid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... of the material (using a Jena stereomicroscope and Neophot microscope from Carl Zeiss, Inc.), fractographic investigation of the fracture surfaces and adjacent areas (with a JEOL 5200 SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using Si-Li detector, and chemical composition (by a Shimadzu X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or compound impact, wear is caused by a process similar to that of adhesive wear during sliding ( Ref 3 , 16 ). More severe conditions at the contact lead to the occurrence of surface fatigue, subsurface crack growth, and spalling ( Ref 15 , 17 – 19 ). Very large impact energies bring about failures due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Incoloy 800H in molten 34.42wt%NaCl-5.58wt%LiCl at 650 and 700 °C (1200 and 1290 °F) under nitrogen. Corrosion increases with increasing temperature. Source: Ref 77 Fig. 19 Schematic of nominal design of concentrating solar power system using molten salts. Solar energy is concentrated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in valence or a release of electrons. A decrease in valence charge or the consumption of electrons signifies a reduction or cathodic reaction. Equations 3 and 4 are partial reactions; both must occur simultaneously and at the same rate on the metal surface. If this were not true, the metal would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Original magnification: 11× Fig. 21 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of a bungee cord fractured surface showing fillers to be calcium carbonate type Fig. 19 (a) Failed and (b) exemplar bungee cords Fig. 20 Bungee cord strands at failure showing broken appearance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... utilization of organic acids as their role as source of carbon and energy. Such acids include acetate, citrate, oxalate, glyoxylate, succinate, and malate, and consumption of these acids results in a pH increase for the system, and thereby leading to precipitation in the presence of calcium ions [ 33 , 34...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the alternating torque peaks from the pump were too high. To correct this problem, a flywheel was added to level the torque peaks by absorbing energy during one half of the cycle and return in energy to the system during the other half cycle. The alternating torque values were reduced by a factor of three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 Example of fretting and related visible imprint on the main bearing shell. Adapted from Ref 10 . Reprinted with permission from MAN Energy Solutions Fig. 2 Fatigue crack generated by fretting damage in a rivet hole and fastened assemblies. Bottom two images reprinted from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... x-ray microanalysis, using wavelength- or energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometers for identification of compounds, which in turn may identify corrosives. These techniques are often used to analyze for the presence of contaminants on crack surfaces or at the roots of pits. More information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) Positions of layers of corrosion product on inner surface of piping (see Table 2 for compositions of layers) Abstract Abstract Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between a solid particulate and a fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.08.021 99. Herbst H.M. and Priebsch H.H. , Simulation of Piston Ring Dynamics and Their Effect on Oil Consumption , SAE Trans., J. Eng. , Vol 109 ( No. 3 ), 2000 , p 862 – 873 10.4271/2000-01-0919 100. Hogmark S. , Jacobson S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to caustic gouging Fig. 33 Inner-surface view of the failed tube showing scale crust Fig. 34 Close-up view of transverse section of the tube. A groove formation with wavelike contours filled with scale is seen in the bottom portion. Fig. 36 Energy-dispersive spectroscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the wormhole pitting of carbon steel piping used to transport a slurry of magnesium hydroxide and alumina at pH 10.5 ( Ref 17 ). Whatever the environmental conditions, microorganisms need water, a source of energy to drive their metabolism, and nutrients to provide essential building materials (carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a field corrosion site. XRD, x-ray diffraction; EDX, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; MPN, most probable number; MMM, molecular microbiological methods; APS, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate. Adapted from Ref 14 Fig. 9 Friction factors for flow through test lines under...