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electronic structure method

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... by a hydrostatic weighing method on an analytical balance. The chemical composition of the alloy was determined by a method of local x-ray spectrum analysis using the JSM 840 scanning electron microscope and the link analyzer. Data on babbit's structure parameters and mechanical and tribological properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... “ Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ,” A370 – A316 , ASTM 2. “Hardness and Conductivity Inspection of Wrought Aluminum Alloy Parts,” AMS 2658 Rev C, SAE, revised 2009 3. “ Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel,” A36/A36M-14 , ASTM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to make the pipe material can be accomplished by IR spectroscopy or spectroscopic methods in general. With the chemical structure of the pipe established, the next property to address is the glass transition temperature, T g , and the melt temperature, T m , because these quantities characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evaluation of the failure mechanisms. Microfractographic examination can be conducted in several ways, including direct methods involving light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and indirect methods involving replicas that can be examined by light microscopy or by scanning or transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reveal the relative presence of undesirable constituents or phases. If these characteristics are met, then the true structure is revealed and can be interpreted, measured, analyzed, and recorded. The preparation method should be as simple as possible, should yield consistent, high-quality results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to the erratic distribution of internal stresses in the cast structure resulting from the rolling and forging textures 4 . The various types of crack behaviour can be distinguished in the fracture surfaces, as shown in the comparisons of optical micrographs of the microsection with the scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Summary chart of techniques discussed in this article Table 2 Summary chart of techniques discussed in this article Feature Technique AES XPS TOF-SIMS Probe beam Electrons X-ray photons Ions Analyzed beam Electrons Electrons Ions Average sampling depth 5 nm 5 nm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron microscope examination of the fracture also reveals the intergranular nature of the crack path. If these characteristics are met, then the true structure is revealed and can be interpreted, measured, analyzed, and recorded. The preparation method should be as simple as possible, should yield...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 1 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Properties measured Use in failure analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Molecular bond structure Material identification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... works structures. Typically, up to 15 cm (6 in.) of concrete corrosion loss has been found on many structures, affecting both structural integrity and function. To ensure that the proper corrosion-control method(s) are employed and the full infrastructure service life is realized, local factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... begins with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... 1 ( Fig. 3 ) showed a block structure typical of a brittle intercrystalline fracture, with no fatigue striations; those from the other three areas were typical of a ductile fracture in high strength steel, as shown in Fig. 4 . Fig. 3 Electron micrograph of fracture surface at the nucleus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 9 Schematic showing method for producing extraction replicas and surface replicas for SEM examination Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope Fig. 2 Illustration of how the information obtained from a square raster...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Analysis , McGraw-hill, Inc. , USA ( 1991 ). 5. ASM Handbook , Corrosion, Vol. 13 , Materials Park, OH : ASM International ( 1990 ). 6. Karzov G. P. , Timofeer B. T. and Chernayenko T. A. , “ Effect of micro structure on fatigue strength of structural steels used in power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and methods in the analysis of corrosion and wear failures. In addition, investigations of a failure may utilize various techniques to characterize the condition of material. These include: Metallography or microstructural analysis Mechanical testing Chemical analyses (bulk, local, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... This article describes some of the common elemental composition analysis methods and explains the concept of referee and economy test methods in failure analysis. It discusses different types of microchemical analyses, including backscattered electron imaging, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., this technique is useful for removing particles from a rough surface so that more accurate quantitative information can be obtained from the particles using x-ray analysis. Fig. 9 Schematic showing method for producing extraction replicas and surface replicas for scanning electron microscope examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 30 t × 300 w × 400 h (a) t , thickness; w , width; h , height; d , diameter Fig. 3 Schematic of the preparation of ingots for the three-point bending test. Nondestructive Evaluation Three-Point Bending Test Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography Metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... liquids can accumulate. (a) Storage containers and vessels should allow complete drainage; otherwise, corrosives can concentrate in the bottom of the vessel, and debris can accumulate if the vessel is open to the atmosphere. (b) Structural members should be designed to avoid retention of liquids; L-shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...