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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... plating steps. It was recommended that tin plating should follow the copper underplating within 24 h and a cleaning step of bright dipping after copper plating be performed. Copper plating Electroless nickel plating Electronic devices Tin plating C17500 UNS C17500 Electroless nickel Surface...
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 15 Two halves of this electronic enclosure were bonded together with a high-viscosity two-part epoxy. Designers provided instructions for surface preparation, application, and fixturing to ensure production consistency. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of fracture. Electron fractography revealed that five different modes of crack growth were operative as the part failed. Region 1 was a shallow zone (about 0.002 in. at its deepest) of dimpled structure typical of an overload failure. Region 2 was a zone that grew by a stress corrosion mechanism. Through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A forging of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, which formed a support for the cylinder of a cargo door, cracked at an attachment hole. Fluorescent penetrant inspection showed the crack ran above and below the hole out onto the machined flat surface of the flange. A 6500x electron fractograph...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides information on the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). It describes the basic theory behind each of these techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A steel pot used as crucible in a magnesium alloy foundry developed a leak that resulted in a fire and caused extensive damage. Hypotheses as to the cause of the leak included a defect in the pot, overuse, overheating, and poor foundry practices. Scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article covers the three most popular techniques used to characterize the very outermost layers of solid surfaces: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Some of the more important...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Scanning electron microscopy. (a) Typical scanning electron microscope used in failure analysis photography. (b) Scanning electron microscope photograph of a fatigue fracture More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture. (a) Backscattered electron image. (b) Secondary electron image. Bright areas are lead contamination. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 a). Examination by electron microprobe. Electron diffraction pattern. B). Examination by electron microprobe. Aluminium Kα - radiation. More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 44 Scanning electron micrscope secondary electron image of liquid metal embrittlement in steel locomotive axle More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 45 Scanning electron microscope backscattered electron image of area within Fig. 44 , showing points identified for detailed energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 4 Using both secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) detectors to image a brass fitting with lubricant obscuring the surface aids in chemical analysis of the part. (a) SE detector shows lubricant charging on the surface, an indication of surface contamination, while (b More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture. (a) Backscattered electron image. (b) Secondary electron image. Bright areas are lead contamination. More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 1 Auger electron spectroscopy secondary-electron image with a 5 μm field of view (FOV) of the nickel surface after removal of approximately 12 nm of surface contamination More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 Scanning electron micrograph of transversal section. (a) Reflected electrons. (b) Energy-dispersive analysis for zinc mapping. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A 9310 steel gear was found to be defective after a period of engine service. A linear crack approximately was discovered by routine magnetic-particle inspection of an electron beam welded joint that attached a hollow stub shaft to the web of the gear. The welding procedure had...