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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a preferential attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... plating steps. It was recommended that tin plating should follow the copper underplating within 24 h and a cleaning step of bright dipping after copper plating be performed. Copper plating Electroless nickel plating Electronic devices Tin plating C17500 UNS C17500 Electroless nickel Surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 9 Schematic showing method for producing extraction replicas and surface replicas for SEM examination Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope Fig. 2 Illustration of how the information obtained from a square raster...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 9 Schematic showing method for producing extraction replicas and surface replicas for scanning electron microscope examination Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope Fig. 2 Illustration of how the information obtained from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the exact mode of fracture. Electron fractography revealed that five different modes of crack growth were operative as the part failed. Region 1 was a shallow zone (about 0.002 in. at its deepest) of dimpled structure typical of an overload failure. Region 2 was a zone that grew by a stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A forging of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, which formed a support for the cylinder of a cargo door, cracked at an attachment hole. Fluorescent penetrant inspection showed the crack ran above and below the hole out onto the machined flat surface of the flange. A 6500x electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Summary chart of techniques discussed in this article Table 2 Summary chart of techniques discussed in this article Feature Technique AES XPS TOF-SIMS Probe beam Electrons X-ray photons Ions Analyzed beam Electrons Electrons Ions Average sampling depth 5 nm 5 nm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A steel pot used as crucible in a magnesium alloy foundry developed a leak that resulted in a fire and caused extensive damage. Hypotheses as to the cause of the leak included a defect in the pot, overuse, overheating, and poor foundry practices. Scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Surface analysis technique summary chart Table 1 Surface analysis technique summary chart Surface analysis technique Parameter AES XPS TOF-SIMS Probe beam Electrons X-ray photons Ions Analyzed beam Electrons Electrons Ions Average sampling depth 5 nm 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A 9310 steel gear was found to be defective after a period of engine service. A linear crack approximately was discovered by routine magnetic-particle inspection of an electron beam welded joint that attached a hollow stub shaft to the web of the gear. The welding procedure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... A 6500x electron fractograph showed cracking was predominantly intergranular with hairline indications. Leaking had occurred only 43 h after overhaul of the part. Total service time on the part was 9488 h. It was concluded that cracking on the ID was caused by hydrogen embrittlement which occurred during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A nose landing gear cylinder made from AISI 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel was found cracked and leaking, causing partial depressurization. Investigation revealed the crack to be a stress-corrosion type, judging by the 6500x electron fractograph. It had started in a region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... assembly was made up of two parts: the output shaft with an integral 10 in. diam upper disc at approximately mid-section; and a 10 in. diam lower disc. During manufacture, the lower disc was attached to the output shaft by an electron beam weld. The fracture had a single fatigue initiation site, coincident...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Microhardness gradient through the nitrided layer close to fracture, surface hardness, and macrohardness at the journals were all measured. Fractographic analysis indicated that fatigue was the dominant mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... due to disintegration/failure of individual groups of wires. To understand the genesis of LCTR wire failures, a detailed metallurgical investigation of failed rope wires was made and included visual examination, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Macrophotography and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine samples from the tubes. An energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis was carried out to evaluate the zinc distribution. Results showed that the failure was due to dezincification. Replacement of the tubes with new tubes fabricated from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) crack paths in fractured low alloy steel specimens (both electroless nickel-plated for edge preservation and etched with 2% nital). Fig. 7 Comparison of light microscope (top row) and scanning electron microscope (bottom row) fractographs showing the intergranular fracture appearance...