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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine samples from the tubes. An energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis was carried out to evaluate the zinc distribution. Results showed that the failure was due to dezincification. Replacement of the tubes with new tubes fabricated from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... morphology and distribution in a typical field of the failed roll are shown in Fig. 10 at 2000×. The secondary electron (SE) image in Fig. 10 shows a chain-like carbide segregation with a relatively large triangular particle. Numerous fine globular carbides are found dispersed throughout the tempered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... assembly revealed tensile properties well below the allowable design values. Radiology and CT evaluations revealed no casting defects. Optical microscopy revealed porosity uniformly distributed throughout the casting on the order of 0.1 mm pore diam. Scanning electron microscopy revealed elongated pores...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... A roll manufacturer had successfully used the above procedure for many years to make them. Analysis (visual inspection; 150x micrograph of sections etched with a mixture of 2 parts HNO3, 2 parts acetic acid, and 3 parts HCI; electron microscopy; and stress testing) supported the conclusion...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 X-ray maps from a section of the failed melting pot shown in Fig. 1 . (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a polished cross section. EPMA spectra of regions A and B (arrows) are shown in Fig. 3(a) and 3(b) , respectively. (b) X-ray dot map showing distribution of oxygen. (c) X-ray More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not known; bulk chemical analysis had simply shown that iron was a major component. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify the deposits. In the first instance, the deposit was found to be debris that was left in the reheater tubes during boiler modification and swept...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 11 Secondary electron image of 10% oxalic acid etched coil sample with x-ray elemental distribution maps for C, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu confirming absence of sensitization More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and crystallographic information. Auger maps, obtained by measuring the emitted Auger electron intensity while scanning the electron beam, reveal the lateral distribution of elements across the sample surface. Because of the uncompensated loss of secondary electrons during electron bombardment, AES analysis...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 ( a ) As-received clutch shaft. ( b ) Photographs showing uniformly distributed corrosion pits around the fracture zone in the case of clutch shaft. ( c ) Fractographs showing cleavage steps on star-shaped pattern on the fracture surface of the clutch shaft. ( d ) Scanning electron More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of a fine cleft shaped crack in the stem with the microprobe. It can be seen from the electron picture and the oxygen and iron distribution pictures that spots of oxide precipitate are present in the edge zone and crack walls. The chromium distribution picture indicates enrichment in the edge zone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., reveal atomic number contrast and crystallographic information. Auger maps, obtained by measuring the emitted Auger electron intensity while scanning the electron beam, reveal the lateral distribution of elements across the sample surface. Because of the uncompensated loss of secondary electrons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the steady clamps analyzed: ( a ) views in different directions; ( b ) exploded view; the dashed line indicates the interface Fig. 2 General view of the cracks analyzed: ( a ) crack distribution in lugs and central regions of splint A and ( b ) splint B; the cracks present continuous morphology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... obtained from the inclusions and from the steel matrix. The inclusion spectrum contained primarily iron and oxygen, whereas the matrix spectrum contained primarily iron. X-ray maps were made to show the distribution of iron and oxygen. These results indicated that the inclusions were iron oxide. A similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the modeling and prototyping of new designs of parts from designs developed in computer programs. Distributed computing and dedicated computation capability are critical in the AM process, because each AM machine needs to form the part digitally, transferring the three-dimensional (3D) computer model...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of foreign bodies, resulting from steel making/deoxidizing/teeming stages. The occasionally globular nature of the foreign particles suggested these were formed at the liquid condition of the steel. The ratio of Mn-Si as seen on electron probe microanalysis also suggested the globules high in Mn content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in austenitic microstructure of low nickel austenitic stainless steel. Figure 11 shows a secondary electron image of 10% oxalic acid etched coil specimen with x-ray elemental distribution maps for C, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu. The energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) x-ray elemental mapping at the vicinity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... growth Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography Figure 2 indicates the zones examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractography. Figures 3 and 4 show patterns of stable and unstable crack growth. The stable crack growth was intercrystalline in nature, while the final fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of chlorine. It should be noted that the chlorides are not evenly distributed, but are concentrated to a significant extent in the oxidation product close to the steel interface. Banding is obvious in both photographs. Fig. 1 (Left) Electron image showing unoxidized steel in upper right hand corner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Spalled fragments from the work rolls of a steel bar straightening machine were received for failure analysis. Visual inspection coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy were used as the principal analytical techniques for the investigation. Fractographic analysis revealed...