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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., as well as the noted observations, are described. Six stages [two machined (MP) and four electron beam (EB) welded] from the mercury diffusion pumps operating in the Tritium Purification process at SRS have been analyzed to determine their condition after nine months of usage. Several cracks were found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is reached in the thermal-field-emission (or Schottky gun) SEM when a combination of heat and electric field are used to produce an electron beam. These machines have better resolution than conventional SEMs, while being easier to use than the cold-field-emission machines. Although more expensive than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of topographical imaging of microhardness marks using a backscattered electron detector. (a) Imaged using secondary electrons. (b) Imaged using backscattered electrons Fig. 8 Simulation of beam spreading of 20 keV electrons in zinc Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that is exposed to the electron beam. Vertical-beamline machines are typically designed with the source on the floor and the detector on the ceiling. These machines are often used in electronics inspection, because the circuit board can be placed on a thin tray nearly touching the source, enabling high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... analyzed for elemental chemical composition using an EDX microprobe attached to the SEM. The EDX microprobe spectra were obtained at electron beam voltages of 20 and 5 kV with a windowless detector, conditions that permit the simultaneous detection of all elements in the periodic table above atomic number...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... phosphate layer (arrows) that was applied on the inner surface of the fractured truck beam. 500× The fracture surface surrounding the pit was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine the failure mode and mechanisms. Detailed examination of the fracture surface revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... spectrometer used in electron-probe x-ray microanalysis. Various pulse processing functions and the multichannel analyzer are shown. FET, field effect transistor Fig. 9 SEM image showing carbon residue buildup from the electron beam scan area in the SEM Abstract Abstract This article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the cooling water circuit serving the window also cooled the beam stop made of pure copper. Fig. 9 The window assembly attached to the milling machine in preparation for removal of the shells Fig. 10 The waterside of the inner shell including attached wires that served to direct cooling water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... by aircraft manufacturers and the National Bureau of Standards. Most of the factual information and photographs used in this paper were taken from laboratory reports on investigations of this kind. Landing Gear Forgings Main Landing-Gear Truck-Beam, Rear Axle Housing Main Landing-Gear Shock-Strut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Scanning electron microscopy view of fatigue striations in aluminum forging tested under cyclic loading Fig. 35 Striations observed by scanning electron microscopy on rotating-beam fatigue specimen made of cold-worked electrolytic tough pitch copper. Crack growth direction is from upper right...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray detector. Examination of the 0.047-mm (0.0018 in.) diam nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins showed evidence of severe corrosion ( Fig. 2 and 3 ). The electron beam was positioned on the corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of magnitude greater than is obtained using an energy-dispersive spectrometer. In AES, an electron beam is focused on the area of interest on the sample being examined. Weak Auger electrons resulting from a secondary reaction of x-rays with the orbital electrons are detected. The electrons have energies...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the wavelength-dispersive spectrometers used on the original electron probe microanalyzer developed by Castaing in 1948. The x-rays are generated when a sample of the area of interest is bombarded with a beam of electrons. Light elements to boron (atomic number 5) can be detected, and semiquantitative analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rotating beam specimen. Sample was sputter coated with platinum for SEM examination. Fig. 51 Features observed on fatigue area of polycarbonate rotating beam specimen. (a) Optical view at base of notch. (b) Higher magnification electron fractograph. Sample was sputter coated with platinum for SEM...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Materials.” It provides guidelines for presenting information other than just final data. Correction Factors for Test Data The available fatigue data are normally for a specific type of loading, specimen size, and surface roughness. For instance, the Moore rotating-beam fatigue-test machine uses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... web welds. The arch rib top plate, as it met the main girder, formed a composite beam of A588/A36 composition. Investigation showed the original design of the failed component called for an angle of high geometric stress concentration (90 deg with no radius) in a region of substantial transverse weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A 9310 steel gear was found to be defective after a period of engine service. A linear crack approximately was discovered by routine magnetic-particle inspection of an electron beam welded joint that attached a hollow stub shaft to the web of the gear. The welding procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... topography is adequate for EDS. Instead of selecting a region of interest for a static x-ray dot map, the new systems allow for dynamic exploration of a sample because the software color-codes each element on the basis of characteristic x-rays. Dual-beam electron/ion beam systems, or focused ion beam systems...