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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... in the form of a tan haze Analysis of the coin by EDS showed slightly greater amounts of aluminum and magnesium in the stained area as compared with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. The nonstained and stained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The crosslinked epoxy resin encapsulant protecting an electromagnetic valve coil failed during long-term storage and was examined to determine the cause. The investigation included fault-tree analysis, FTIR and EDX spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be applied either in through-transmission two sides or reflection mode single side. Good sensitivity in acoustically clear material All metals and alloys, sintered carbides, glass and ceramics, rubber, structural plastics, concrete Electromagnetic testing Measures impedance of coil close to conductive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of electromagnetic induction and is sensitive to the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of conductive materials. Eddy current evaluation technique can be applied on both conductive and nonconductive materials depending upon their permeability: however; the permeability must not be equal to one...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the electron gun and focused and controlled by a series of electromagnetic lenses and coils. The resultant beam is collimated and defined by various apertures placed in the beam path. Fig. 1 Schematic showing the general layout of a typical scanning electron microscope The electron gun consists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the target material and the sample. The target material is negatively biased with respect to the sample. The presence of the electric field causes an argon plasma to form, producing argon ions. These positive ions bombard the negative target, knocking off atoms of gold (or another target material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...:1.26, respectively. Lubricants The lubricant applied to wire ropes also provides a measure of corrosion resistance in relatively benign service environments. For enhanced corrosion resistance, wire rope is available in a galvanized form, but with a 10% reduction in mechanical strength from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The surface roughness of a part is needed to assess if and what type of PT method can be used. Surface roughness may also affect other NDE methods that require contact with the part such as UT, ET and MT. Material properties such as electromagnetic characteristics are also important to determine if MT and ET...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., and corrosion, and 2) localized faults (LF) such as broken wires. Electromagnetic instruments have been designed for LMA and LF testing, but have a finite spacial resolving power. By examining broken wires, the parameters for retirement indirectly address fatigue, which is a serious factor in the useful...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear situations, the white layer in one body can be entirely made up of material transferred from the second body. Subsurface regions form on both impacting bodies and grow very quickly, within a few hundred impacts ( Ref 8 ). Once formed, the white layer and the deformation zone maintain a steady...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... it is desirable to examine the nuts and other associated parts that may have contributed to the failures. Also, in failures involving corrosion, stress-corrosion, or corrosion fatigue, a sample of the fluid that has been in contact with the metal, or of any deposits that have formed, will often be required...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., displacements, temperatures, vibrations, and other service-related factors that the part experiences. It may also include numerous analytical, classical, and computer techniques that are available to assist in a structural design failure analysis. A traditional closed-form analytical technique such as beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... experiences. It may also include numerous analytical, classical, and computer techniques that are available to assist in a structural design failure analysis. A traditional closed-form analytical technique, such as beam analysis or plate theory, provides a simple and quick way to estimate stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that must be considered is the presence of a third-body material. This may be in the form of a lubricant applied to help mitigate a wear or friction problem ( Ref 4 ), or in the form of wear debris, or something there naturally as part of the operating environment, such as sand ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... material (powder or wire) to form a metallurgical bond with a substrate (in the case of DED) and/or the previous layer (for either PBF or DED). The typical power sources for melting are lasers and electron beams, but conventional arcs and indiscriminate (phase-incoherent) electromagnetic energy also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for Electromagnetic Examination of Ferromagnetic Steel Wire Rope ,” E 1571-11(2016)e1, ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA , 2016 , www.astm.org 4. “ Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Chain ,” A 413/A 413M-07(2012), ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA , 2012 , www.astm.org 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... researches of Wöhler 3 , were published that engineers in general began to appreciate the importance not only of fluctuations in stress but also of changes of form that gave rise to stress concentrations. The “fatigue” aspect of design became of increasing importance with the arrival of the high speed steam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” occurred at a later stage after crack “A” had formed, and that crack “B” was arrested at the prior crack. Fig. 1 Intersection of two cracks. Crack “B” has been arrested at crack “A,” which occurred first. In the case of fracture surfaces, it is important to record if these are macroscopically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... acid etch Fig. 39 Stress-corrosion cracking in a 316 stainless steel orthopedic implant Fig. 40 Hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline steel Fig. 41 Voids formed by methane in a carbon steel exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere at high temperature. The carbides in the pearlite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... They are all customer focused and are founded on problem solving as a means for improvement. When addressing customer focus, producers and other organizations have identified that the form, fit, function, and service-life requirements of a product or system are actually defined ultimately by customers...