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electrolytic iron powders

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the steel anode top continued, iron grains were dislodged from the matrix, and a portion of the grains may have settled at the bottom of the same cell, whereas some were carried to the next cell by the electrolyte stream. The black powder found at the bottom of the cells consisted of debris or grains from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... corrosion resistance. Etching of the core structure showed a selective form of cast iron corrosion (spongiosis or graphitic corrosion) which lowered the strength of the cast iron enough that a knife could scrape off a black powder (10.85% C, 1.8% S, 1.45% P). Analysis showed that some of the “sulfate” found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Compounds in the deposits were identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The EDS results of the inner diameter deposit analysis are shown in Fig. 8 . The XRD results showed that the deposits consisted primarily of iron oxide/magnetite (Fe 3 O...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature at which austenite begins to form on heating Ac3 temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed on heating ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ACI Alloy Casting Institute AES Auger electron spectroscopy AGMA American Gear Manufacturers Asso- ciation AISI American Iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contrast, it may be difficult to determine where the nickel plating ends and the surface begins, as shown in Fig. 3 (d). Figure 4 shows an example of ion-nitrided hot work die steel with a brittle white-etching iron nitride surface layer that is quite visible when mounted in a mineral-filled epoxy resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion of iron under acidic conditions, the rate-controlling step occurs on the cathodic surface, where protons from the electrolyte are initially reduced to atomic hydrogen ( Ref 10 ). To escape the metal surface, the atomic hydrogen must either enter the metal matrix or form molecular hydrogen, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... features that may be observed for general, galvanic, crevice, and pitting corrosion are: General attack (uniform corrosion), which is typically apparent from overall thinning and loss of metal Galvanic corrosion, which occurs when dissimilar metals are in electrical contact via an electrolyte...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...,” “cocoa,” or “red mud.” In components that are lubricated so that ordinary corrosion is not likely to occur, the presence of reddish brown debris is indicative of fretting. If a component is not lubricated, the presence of oxide powder may not necessarily signify fretting but, rather, wear. Fretting also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen (one part per million by weight, or 1 ppmw) in steel results in increased anodic dissolution of iron by approximately 200 to 500%. Thomas et al. ( Ref 48 ) observed that hydrogen-charged iron in a nonpassivating electrolyte released an appreciably higher concentration of iron ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depending on the component geometry. Mechanical conditions and metallurgical features can influence the appearance of MVC. Examples are shown for a ferritic steel ( Fig. 1a ), ductile iron ( Fig. 1b ), and cast titanium alloy ( Fig. 1c ). The dimple features are evident in equiaxed form for tensile loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... anodic and cathodic sites. Stainless steel tubes are usually pickle cleaned to remove the oxide and iron contaminants. The strip stock from which welded tubing is made can be inspected immediately before forming and welding and can be rejected if it does not meet quality requirements. Alignment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ), ductile iron ( Fig. 1b ), and cast titanium alloy ( Fig. 1c ). The dimple features are evident in equiaxed form for tensile loading ( Fig. 1a and b ). Parabolic shear dimples occur from torsional loading ( Fig. 1c ) or from mode II (in-plane) shear. However, metallic materials can behave in a ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... designed to produce small-amplitude rotational movement between two annuli in the first case, and an annulus and a flat in the second case ( Ref 4 ). The movement was controlled by a long lever system. Because the resultant debris on steel specimens was the red iron oxide α-Fe 2 O 3 , which had risen from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Bend properties Corrosion fatigue Fatigue (materials) Fracture characteristics Mechanics Stresses Torsional fatigue Irons and steels Fatigue fracture Introduction In carrying out an investigation into the cause of breakdown of some engine or machine that has been damaged or wrecked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the liquid penetrant may corrode the metal. Surface films may prevent detection of discontinuities. Penetrant may be a source of contamination that masks results in subsequent chemical analysis of fracture surfaces. The process is generally not suited to inspection of low-density powder-metallurgy...